Chemical cues mediate social monogamy in a marine caridean shrimp, Lysmata debelius
To better understand the social monogamy in decapod crustaceans, individual recognition in a socially monogamous shrimp, Lysmata debelius, was investigated. We hypothesized that chemical cues play an important role in mediating monogamy, because chemical cues is the primary form of communicaition. To test this, we first examined mate recognition and second tested the presence of chemical cues in individual recognition. The individual recognition to conspecifics of different reproductive statuses was tested in a Y-maze excluding visual cues and tactile cues. Inter-molt and pre-molt euhermaphrodite-phase shrimps served as males and females, respectively. A focal male (cue detector) was placed in the bottom chamber, and two shrimps (cue releasers) of different statuses were placed in the upper two champers, respectively. We find that the focal male spent more time in the front of the chamber holding the paired partner when the other shrimp was not female, and prefered to the female stranger rather than its male partner. Interestingly, when both stranger and partner were females, the focal male actually spent more time in the chamber holding the female stranger. The results indicate that olfactory chemical cues mediate monogamy in L. debelius in place of visual cues, and the chemical cues are probably individual specific (i.e. identification odor). The courtship and mating behaviors of L. debelius were also reported for the first time. During mating, L. debelius displayed no courtship behavior, differing from its sister species, L. wurdemanni which live in aggregation, and L. amboinensis which live in low denstiy. Combining the previous results in L. wurdemanni and L. amboinensis, we can conclude that L. wurdemanni has the most elaborate precopulatory courtship rituals, L. amboinesis has less, and L. debelius has none, i.e. the behavioral activity between male and pre- and post-molt female decreases with the population intensity. This behavioral pattern should be sexually selected in different social systems. The present study would enrich our understanding of the evolution of social-dependent behaviors in crustaceans.
KeywordsIndividual recognition Chemical cue Lysmata debelius Monogamy
We thank Xiong Zou for the help with animal transportation. We are grateful for the valuable comments made by the reviewers of the manuscript.
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant number: 41576161).
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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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Ethical approval and consent to participate were not required for this work.
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