Advertisement

Journal of Ethology

, Volume 37, Issue 3, pp 343–351 | Cite as

Reintroduction of the Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus): a preliminary case study in Extremadura, Spain

  • Ana FigueiredoEmail author
  • Rita Tinoco Torres
  • Luís P. Pratas-Santiago
  • Sérgio Pérez
  • Carlos Fonseca
  • María Jesus Palacios González
  • Fernando Nájera
Article

Abstract

Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) reintroductions are part of this species’ conservation program to ensure its re-establishment and survival in areas of historical presence. Release protocols include hard-release, directly in the field, and soft-release, allowing reintroduced animals to acclimatize to the new environment site, which may lead to higher survival and reproductive rates. During soft-release reintroductions in Extremadura (Spain), we recorded individual and social behaviors of four released Iberian lynxes in a 1.5-ha enclosure, divided into three longitudinal strips to simplify behavioral data collection: zone 1, or releasing area, containing an additional feeding point; zone 2, or central zone, with rocks and natural rabbit refuges; and zone 3, or the farthest zone from the releasing area, of abundant arboreal vegetation. Our results showed that “pacing”, “lying” and “patrolling” were the most common behaviors observed in the four lynxes. Social interactions such as “approach”, and “lordosis” were the most common and indicated significant differences between individuals. Concerning sexes, males exhibited the behavior “showing indifference,” unlike females that never presented it. Data collected revealed that the lynx had a preference for zone 3 of the enclosure. Pre-release behavior monitoring is critical I n Iberian lynx soft-release reintroductions in order to ensure their acclimatization to the new site, identify their survival skills and allow their establishment in the reintroduction areas.

Keywords

Endangered Iberian lynx Reintroduction Soft-release Stereotypes 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This project has been carried out with LIFE + Iberlince funds. We are grateful to the technicians from DGMA Junta de Extremadura, MAPAMA, CBD-Habitat and Agentes del Medio Natural, for all the help provided in the field. We also thank the Columbus Zoo and Aquarium Conservation Fund and Sequoia Park Zoo Conservation Committee for additional support to the reintroduction program. Thanks are due for financial support to CESAM (UID/AMB/50017-POCI-01-0145-FEDER-007638), to FCT/MCTES through national funds (PIDDAC), and co-funding by the FEDER, within the PT2020 Partnership Agreement and Compete 2020. R.T. Torres was supported by a post-doctoral grant from FCT (SFRH/BPD/112482/2015).

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical approval

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.

References

  1. Adania CH, de Carvalho WD, Rosalino LM, de Cassio Pereira J, Crawshaw PG (2017) First soft-release of a relocated puma in South America. Mamm Res 62(1):121–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Armstrong DP, Seddon PJ (2008) Directions in reintroduction biology. Trend Ecol Evol 23(1):20–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beltran JF (1988) Ecologia y conducta espacio temporal del lince iberico en el Parque Nacional de Doñana. Doctoral DissertationGoogle Scholar
  4. Carlstead K (1996) Effects of captivity on the behavior of wild animals. In: Kleiman DG, Allen ME, Thompson KV, Lumpkin.n S (eds) Wild mammals in captivity. Chicago University Press, Chicago, pp 317–333Google Scholar
  5. Clubb R, Mason G (2003) Animal welfare: captivity effects on wide-ranging carnivores. Nature 425(6957):473–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Devineau O, Shenk TM, Doherty PF, White GC, Kahn RH (2011) Assessing release protocols for Canada lynx reintroduction in Colorado. J Wildl Manag 75(3):623–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Eastridge R, Clark JD (2001) Evaluation of 2 soft-release techniques to reintroduce black bears. Wild Soc B 29(4):1163–1174Google Scholar
  8. Fazio J (2010) Behavioral assessment of the clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa); a comparative study of reproductive success. Doctoral dissertationGoogle Scholar
  9. Ferreras P, Beltrán JF, Aldama JJ, Delibes M (1997) Spatial organization and land tenure system of the endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus). J Zool 243(1):163–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fischer J, Lindenmayer DB (2000) An assessment of the published results of animal relocations. Biol Conserv 96(1):1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gil-Sánchez JM, Ballesteros-Duperón E, Bueno-Segura JF (2006) Feeding ecology of the Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus in eastern Sierra Morena (southern Spain). Acta Theriol 51(1):85–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gil-Sánchez JM, Moral M, Bueno J, Rodríguez-Siles J, Lillo S, Pérez J, Martín JM, Valenzuela G, Garrote G, Torralba B, Simón-Mata MÁ (2011) The use of camera trapping for estimating Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) home ranges. Eur J Wildl Res 57(6):1203–1211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. López-Bao JV, Rodríguez A, Palomares F (2008) Behavioural response of a trophic specialist, the Iberian lynx, to supplementary food: patterns of food use and implications for conservation. Biol Conserv 141(7):1857–1867CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Macdonald DW, Loveridge AJ, Nowell K (2010) Dramatis personae: an introduction to the wild felids. Biol Conserv Wild Felids 1:3–58Google Scholar
  15. MacKinnon KM (2008) Pairing clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa) in a captive breeding program. Doctoral dissertationGoogle Scholar
  16. Manteca X (2009) Behavioral problems of wild felids in captivity. In: Vargas A, Breitenmoser C, Breitenmoser U (eds) Iberian lynx ex situ conservation: an interdisciplinary approach. Fundación Biodiversidad, Madrid, pp 127–135Google Scholar
  17. Martos A (2009) Environmental enrichment for wild felids in captivity. In: Vargas A, Breitenmoser C, Breitenmoser U (eds) Iberian lynx ex situ conservation: an interdisciplinary approach. Fundación Biodiversidad, Madrid, pp 137–145Google Scholar
  18. Mason G, Clubb R, Latham N, Vickery S (2007) Why and how should we use environmental enrichment to tackle stereotypic behaviour? Appl Anim Behav Sci 102(3):163–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mitchell AM, Wellicome TI, Brodie D, Cheng KM (2011) Captive-reared burrowing owls show higher site-affinity, survival, and reproductive performance when reintroduced using a soft-release. Biol Conserv 144(5):1382–1391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Parker KA, Dickens MJ, Clarke RH, Lovegrove TG (2012) The theory and practice of catching, holding, moving and releasing animals. In: Ewen JG, Armstrong DP, Parker KA, Seddon PJ (eds) Reintroduction biology: integrating science and management. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Oxford, UK, pp. 105–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Quirke T, O’Riordan RM, Zuur A (2012) Factors influencing the prevalence of stereotypical behaviour in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). Appl Anim Behav Sci 142(3):189–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ripple WJ, Beschta RL (2012) Trophic cascades in yellowstone: the first 15 years after wolf reintroduction. Biol Conserv 145(1):205–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rivas A, Martínez F, Sánchez I, Aguilar JM, Quevedo MA, Bergara J, Vázquez E, Cuadrado M, Vargas A (2009) Hand-rearing of Iberian lynx cubs. In:  Vargas A, Breitenmoser C, Breitenmoser U (eds) Iberian lynx ex situ conservation: an interdisciplinary approach. Fundación Biodiversidad, Madrid, pp. 109–124Google Scholar
  24. Rivas A, Boixader J, Vargas A, Pérez MJ, Serra R et al (2016) Manual de manejo del lince ibérico en Cautividad. Programa de Conservación Ex-Situ del Lince Ibérico, p 250Google Scholar
  25. Rodríguez A, Calzada J (2015) Lynx pardinus. The IUCN red list of threatened species 2015:e.T12520A50655794. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.20152.RLTS.T12520A50655794.en Downloaded on 05 September 2017
  26. Rodriguez A, Barrios L, Delibes M (1995) Experimental release of an Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus). Biodivers Conserv 4(4):382–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rushen J, Lawrence AB, Terlouw EMC (1993) The motivational basis of stereotypies. In: Lawrence AB, Rushen J (eds) Stereotypic animal behaviour. Fundamentals and applications to welfare, CAB International, Wallingford, pp 41–64Google Scholar
  28. R Core Team (2014) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. URL http://www.R-project.org/
  29. San Miguel A (ed) (2014) Manual para la gestión del hábitat del lince ibérico (Lynx pardinus) y de su presa principal, el conejo de monte (Oryctolagus cuniculus), 2nd edn. Fundación CBD-Hábitat, MadridGoogle Scholar
  30. Sarmento P, Carrapato C, Eira C, Silva JP (2017) Spatial organization and social relations in a reintroduced population of endangered Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus. Oryx 53(2):1–12Google Scholar
  31. Simón M et al (2012) Ten years conserving the Iberian lynx. Consejería de Agricultura, Pesca y Medio Ambiente, Junta de Andalucía, SevilleGoogle Scholar
  32. Soorae PS (2018) Global Reintroduction Perspectives: 2018. Case studies from around the globe. IUCN/SSC Reintroduction Specialist Group & Environment Agency, Abu DhabiCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Stanton LA, Sullivan MS, Fazio JM (2015) A standardized ethogram for the felidae: a tool for behavioral researchers. Appl Anim Behav Sci 173:3–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Teixeira CP, De Azevedo CS, Mendl M, Cipreste CF, Young RJ (2007) Revisiting translocation and reintroduction programmes: the importance of considering stress. Anim Behav 73(1):1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Varadharajan V, Krishnamoorthy T, Nagarajan B (2016) Prevalence of stereotypes and its possible causes among captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Tamil Nadu, India. Appl Anim Behav Sci 174:137–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Vaz J, Narayan EJ, Kumar RD, Thenmozhi K, Thiyagesan K, Baskaran N (2017) Prevalence and determinants of stereotypic behaviours and physiological stress among tigers and leopards in Indian zoos. PLoS One 12(4):e0174711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wanless RM, Cunningham J, Hockey PA, Wanless J, White RW, Wiseman R (2002) The success of a soft-release reintroduction of the flightless Aldabra rail (Dryolimnas [cuvieri] aldabranus) on Aldabra Atoll, Seychelles. Biol Conserv 107(2):203–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Weller SH, Bennett CL (2001) Twenty-four hour activity budgets and patterns of behavior in captive ocelots (Leopardus pardalis). Appl Anim Behav Sci 71(1):67–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wielebnowski NC, Ziegler K, Wildt DE, Lukas J, Brown JL (2002) Impact of social management on reproductive, adrenal and behavioural activity in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). Anim Conserv Forum 5(4):291–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wimberger K, Downs CT, Perrin MR (2009) Two unsuccessful reintroduction attempts of rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis) into a reserve in the KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. S Afr J Wildl Res 39(2):192–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Yerga J, Calzada J, Manteca X, Vargas A, Pérez MJ, Palomares F, Rivas A (2015) Ontogeny of daily activity and circadian rhythm in the Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus). Appl Anim Behav Sci 169:62–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zuberbühler K, Wittig RM (2011) Field experiments with nonhuman primates: a tutorial. Field and laboratory methods in primatology: a practical guide. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 207–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Japan Ethological Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biology and CESAMUniversity of AveiroAveiroPortugal
  2. 2.School of Anthropology and ConservationUniversity of KentCanterburyUK
  3. 3.GPEX-DGMA, Junta de Extremadura Consejería de Medio Ambiente y Rural, Políticas Agrarias y Territorio, Dirección General del Medio AmbienteMéridaSpain
  4. 4.DGMA, Junta de Extremadura Consejería de Medio Ambiente y Rural, Políticas Agrarias y TerritorioMéridaSpain
  5. 5.FOTEX-DGMA, Junta de Extremadura Consejería de Medio Ambiente y Rural, Políticas Agrarias y TerritorioMéridaSpain
  6. 6.Facultad de VeterinariaUniversidad Complutense de MadridMadridSpain

Personalised recommendations