Food-sharing behaviour within a group of free-living Endangered Coimbra-Filho’s titi monkeys
Socioecological studies related to food-sharing behaviours in titi monkeys are scarce, with no such reports for the Endangered Coimbra-Filho’s titi monkey, Callicebus coimbrai. We aimed to describe the pattern of food-sharing behaviours during monitoring (444 h) of a wild group of Coimbra-Filho’s titi monkeys inhabiting a fragment of Atlantic forest in Northeast Brazil. We reported 43 food-sharing events (23 food-begging and 20 transfer attempt events). For the food-begging events, infants were the main beggars (74 %) while adult males were the main possessors (48 %). High-quality foods were more shared between related and unrelated individuals. Infants were the most successful beggars, receiving most of the high-quality food. Coimbra-Filho’s titi monkeys did not require any special skills to access the high-quality or easy-to-process food items related to the food-sharing events, suggesting that food sharing in these monkeys is linked to the kin selection and sharing-under-pressure hypotheses.
KeywordsSocioecology Food transfer Callicebus coimbrai Parental care Reciprocity
J.P.S.-A. is supported by a CAPES/PNPD fellowship (grant no. 527091) and the Fundação de Amparo à Ciência e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (FACEPE, grant no. BCT-0025-2.05/17). J.P.S.-A. and R.R.D.C. were supported by a CAPES Ph.D. scholarship during the fieldwork period. This study was financed in part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior—Brasil (CAPES, finance code 001). We are grateful to everyone who offered logistical support for this research at the study site, and to two anonymous reviewers and Kensuke Nakata for valuable comments on an initial version of this manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that none of them have any conflicts of interest.
All research complied with Brazilian legal requirements. It also adhered to the ASAB/ABS Guidelines for the Use of Animals in Research and American Society of Primatologists Principles for the Ethical Treatment of Non-Human Primates.
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