Journal of Ethology

, Volume 35, Issue 1, pp 149–152 | Cite as

Understanding the behavior of manta rays: answer to a critique

  • Csilla Ari
  • Keller Laros
  • Jonathan Balcombe
  • Dominic P. DAgostino
Reply

Supplementary material

Manta ray opens and closes cephalic fin that is closer to the wall on reaching the wall (WMV 76596 kb)

Manta ray opens cephalic fin when passing a white pole/novel object (AVI 8477 kb)

10164_2016_497_MOESM3_ESM.wmv (1.2 mb)
Manta ray opens cephalic fin when passing a white pole/novel object (WMV 1236 kb)
10164_2016_497_MOESM4_ESM.wmv (1.9 mb)
Manta ray opens cephalic fin when passing a vacuum hose/novel object (WMV 1963 kb)

Manta ray opens cephalic fin when passing a board at the side of tank/novel object (WMV 12658 kb)

Manta ray using opened cephalic fins to channel plankton into its mouth (AVI 9732 kb)

10164_2016_497_MOESM7_ESM.wmv (5.4 mb)
Manta ray moves cephalic fins at a cleaning station (WMV 5502 kb)
10164_2016_497_MOESM8_ESM.wmv (4.8 mb)
Manta ray moves cephalic fins at a cleaning station (WMV 4955 kb)

Male manta ray touches the back of a female manta ray with its cephalic fin (WMV 14017 kb)

Male manta ray closely follows a female manta ray with opened cephalic fins (”forming a train”) (WMV 28799 kb)

References

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Copyright information

© Japan Ethological Society and Springer Japan 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Csilla Ari
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Keller Laros
    • 2
  • Jonathan Balcombe
    • 4
  • Dominic P. DAgostino
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Hyperbaric Biomedical Research LaboratoryUniversity of South FloridaTampaUSA
  2. 2.Manta Pacific Research FoundationKailua-KonaUSA
  3. 3.Foundation for the Oceans of the FutureBudapestHungary
  4. 4.Humane Society Institute for Science and PolicyWashingtonUSA

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