Understanding the behavior of manta rays: answer to a critique
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Animal consciousness, especially fish consciousness, is a debated field. Very few studies focus on it, therefore critique and debate in regards to our presented results (Ari and D’Agostino 2016) was expected.
There are currently several potential roles suggested for cephalic fin movements and body turns of manta rays. As the significance of these behaviors in regards to the existence of self-awareness is uncertain, these areas of research remain to be explored further. It is undeniably questionable whether Gallup’s mirror self-recognition test is the most appropriate test to demonstrate self-awareness in manta rays or other fish species, but since this is what scientists used in previous studies, this test represents the best-known comparator for exploring the question of self-awareness in manta rays. As technological advances allow us to examine more closely the biology of teleosts and chondrichthyans, science is uncovering social, cognitive and emotional capacities that rival those...
KeywordsSocial Signal Mark Test Asian Elephant Sensory Exchange Wild Specimen
Compliance with ethical standards
This manuscript has not been submitted to any other journal. All co-authors participated and agreed to the content of the manuscript and are aware that it has been submitted for publication to the Journal of Ethology.
Manta ray opens and closes cephalic fin that is closer to the wall on reaching the wall (WMV 76596 kb)
Manta ray opens cephalic fin when passing a white pole/novel object (AVI 8477 kb)
Manta ray opens cephalic fin when passing a board at the side of tank/novel object (WMV 12658 kb)
Manta ray using opened cephalic fins to channel plankton into its mouth (AVI 9732 kb)
Male manta ray touches the back of a female manta ray with its cephalic fin (WMV 14017 kb)
Male manta ray closely follows a female manta ray with opened cephalic fins (”forming a train”) (WMV 28799 kb)
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