Alternative reproductive modes of Atlantic forest frogs
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Diversity in reproductive modes is well known in amphibians, mainly among anurans, which are characterized by a diversity in breeding biology that exceeds that of any other tetrapod. Currently, 39 reproductive modes are recognized among anurans and some species display more than one mode. The breeding biology of some Brazilian Atlantic forest anurans was investigated for this study. We observed unreported reproductive modes for six species, variability in the reproductive modes of individuals of the same species (whereby some individuals of a given population displayed unusual reproductive modes when the physical conditions of the breeding site were suboptimal), and variations within the modes. These observations suggest possible evolutionary steps for the reproductive modes. Anuran breeding biology seems to be more diverse than previously reported, and a character matrix could be constructed to describe the total range of variation of the anuran reproductive modes.
KeywordsReproduction Amphibian Anura Behavioral variation Egg-deposition site
Two anonymous reviewers provided insightful suggestions in earlier versions of the manuscript. Rogério P. Bastos, José J. Pombal Jr., Tomaz Fumio Takeuchi, and Diogo B. Provete helped with the fieldwork. Ivan Sazima provided unpublished information on Bokermannohyla sp. (aff. circumdata). David Rodriguez helped with English corrections. MVG acknowledges Fundação O Boticário de Proteção à Natureza (convênio FBPN-UFPR 623) for financial support and FAPESP for a fellowship (process: 2008/50575-1). IBAMA provided collecting permits (no. 107/06-RAN). MTH acknowledges Capes and CNPq for fellowships. TRNC thanks Capes for a scholarship. LFT thanks FAPESP (2008/50325-5) for Grants and a scholarship (2008/52847-9). RLM thanks Capes for a scholarship. CFBH thanks FAPESP and CNPq for financial support.
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