Advertisement

Journal of Ethology

, Volume 29, Issue 3, pp 435–441 | Cite as

Sexually dimorphic male horns and their use in agonistic behaviors in the horn-headed cricket Loxoblemmus doenitzi (Orthoptera: Gryllidae)

  • Hokyung Kim
  • Yikweon JangEmail author
  • Jae C. ChoeEmail author
Article

Abstract

Sexual dimorphism, the difference between the sexes in secondary sexual characters, is in general driven by processes of sexual selection. The horn-headed cricket, Loxoblemmus doenitzi, exhibits sexual dimorphism in head shape. Males have flat heads and triangular horns on both sides of their heads, whereas females have rounded heads and no horns. We hypothesized that male horns have evolved due to intra-sexual selection, in which males use these horns as weapons in aggressive interactions. We tested two predictions of this hypothesis by conducting agonistic trials with field-caught males of L. doenitzi: (1) the horns should be used in agonistic interactions between males, and (2) the asymmetry in horn size or horn use may determine contest outcome. Horn length was significantly correlated with thorax length and hind femur length. During agonistic interactions, males aggressively used their horns by beating the opponent’s horns with their own or by poking the opponent’s body. However, logistic regression analysis revealed that neither horn length nor horn use were significant factors for contest outcome. Instead, body size was significant for determining contest outcome. We discuss possible scenarios for evolution of male horns in L. doenitzi.

Keywords

Loxoblemmus doenitzi Sexual dimorphism Secondary sexual character Agonistic behavior Calling song character 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to Jaeha Ahn for cricket rearing and video analyses. This work was supported financially by a Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2010-0003613) to Y.J. The experiments in this study comply with the current law of Republic of Korea.

References

  1. Adamo SA, Hoy RR (1995) Agonistic behavior in male and female field crickets, Gryllus bimaculatus, and how behavioural context influences its expression. Anim Behav 49:1491–1501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexander RD (1961) Aggressiveness, territoriality, and sexual behavior in field crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). Behaviour 17:130–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andersson M (1994) Sexual selection. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  4. Barki A, Harpaz S, Karplus I (1997) Contradictory asymmetries in body and weapon size, and assessment in fighting male prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Aggres Behav 23:81–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brown WD, Wideman J, Andrade MCB, Mason AC, Gwynne DT (1996) Female choice for an indicator of male size in the song of the black-horned tree cricket, Oecanthus nigricornis (Orthoptera: Gryllidae: Oecanthinae). Evolution 50:2400–2411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bywater CL, Angilletta MJ, Wilson RS (2008) Weapon size is a reliable indicator of strength and social dominance in female slender crayfish (Cherax dispar). Funct Ecol 22:311–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Caldwell RL, Dingle J (1979) The influence of size differential on agonistic encounters in the mantis shrimp, Gonodactylus viridis. Behaviour 69:255–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Choe JC (1994) Sexual selection and mating system in Zorotypus gurneyi Choe (Insecta: Zoraptera): I. Dominance hierarchy and mating success. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 34:87–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Choi D, Kim K-H, Jang Y (2011) Agonistic interactions between nymphs of Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae). J Asia Pac Entomol 14:21–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Clutton-Brock TH, Guiness FE, Albon SD (1982) Red deer: behavior and ecology of two sexes. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  11. Darwin C (1859) The origin of species. Murray, LondonGoogle Scholar
  12. Darwin C (1871) The descent of man, and selection in relation to sex. Murray, LondonGoogle Scholar
  13. Emlen DJ (2008) The evolution of animal weapons. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 39:387–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fisher RA (1958) The genetical theory of natural selection, 2nd edn. Dover, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. Hagelin JC (2002) The kinds of traits involved in male–male competition: a comparison of plumage, behavior, and body size in quail. Behav Ecol 13:32–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Han CS, Jablonski PG (2010) Role of body size in dominance interactions between male water striders, Aquarius paludum. J Ethol 28:389–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hofmann HA, Schildberger K (2001) Assessment of strength and willingness to fight during aggressive encounters in crickets. Anim Behav 62:337–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Honegger H-W, Campan R (1989) Vision and visually guided behavior. In: Huber F, Moore TE, Loher W (eds) Cricket behavior and neurobiology. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, pp 147–177Google Scholar
  19. Houde AE (1994) Effect of artificial selection on male colour patterns on mating preference of female guppies. Proc R Soc Lond B 256:125–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jang Y, Gerhardt H, Choe J (2008) A comparative study of aggressiveness in eastern North American field cricket species (genus Gryllus). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 62:1397–1407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jennions MD, Moller AP, Petrie M (2001) Sexually selected traits and adult survival: a meta-analysis. Q Rev Biol 76:3–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Judge KA, Bonanno VL (2008) Male weaponry in a fighting cricket. Plos One 3:e3980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Keuper A, Kalmring K, Schatral A, Latimer W, Kaiser W (1986) Behavioural adaptations of ground living bushcrickets to the properties of sound propagation in low grassland. Oecologia 70:414–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Khazraïe K, Campan M (1999) The role of prior agonistic experience in dominance relationships in male crickets Gryllus bimaculatus (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). Behav Processes 44:341–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kim TW (2007) A taxonomic review of the Korean Orthoptera (Insecta). Sungshin Women’s University, SeoulGoogle Scholar
  26. Kirkpatrick M (1982) Sexual selection and the evolution of female choice. Evolution 36:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kirkpatrick M, Ryan MJ (1991) The evolution of mating preferences and the paradox of the lek. Nature 350:33–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lande R (1981) Models of speciation by sexual selection on polygenic traits. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78:3721–3725PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lee HJ, Loher W (1996) Influence of age and environmental factors on burrow-making behavior of the short-tailed cricket, Anurogryllus muticus (De Geer) (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). J Insect Behav 9:819–834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Maynard Smith J (1982) Evolution and the theory of games. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  31. Palmer TJ (1978) A horned beetle which fights. Nature 274:583–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Parker GA (1974) Assessment strategy and the evolution of fighting behaviour. J Theor Biol 47:223–243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Riechert SE (1998) Game theory and animal contests. In: Dugatkin LA, Reeve HK (eds) Game theory and animal behavior. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 64–93Google Scholar
  34. Sneddon LU, Huntingford FA, Taylor AC (1997) Weapon size versus body size as a predictor of winning in fights between shore crabs, Carcinus maenas (L.). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 41:237–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Tachon G, Murray A-M, Gray DA, Cade WH (1999) Agonistic displays and the benefits of fighting in the field cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. J Insect Behav 12:533–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wilkinson GS, Reillo PR (1994) Female choice response to artificial selection on an exaggerated male trait in a stalk-eyed fly. Proc R Soc Lond B 255:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Japan Ethological Society and Springer 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of EcoScienceEwha UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations