Potential use of waste cockle shell as filler for thermoplastic composite

  • Yamuna MunusamyEmail author
  • Sumathi Sethupathi
  • Chi Hong Choon


Cockle shell (CS) is a food-based solid waste. CS has no economic value and mostly dumped in landfills without prior treatment. This paper presents the results on the feasibility study of CS as a filler to produce thermoplastic composites. CS contains high amount of calcium carbonate. At present, precipitated calcium carbonate from limestone is used as filler in polymer industry. Thus, it is foreseen that CS could substitute the usage of limestone and indirectly preserve our natural limestone from destruction. CS [10–50 parts of thermoplastic polymer (pphr)] was used as filler to produce low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and LDPE/corn starch composites. Readings of Young modulus, thermal decomposition temperatures and crystallinity of all the composites were higher compared to pure LDPE. Tensile strength of the composite increased compared to pure LDPE at 10 pphr loading. Weight loss of the thermoplastic composites filled with CS in soil burial test indicates the potential of partial biodegradability of the composites after its service life. In future works, surface treatment of CS with suitable chemicals could be carried out to enhance the interaction between CS and LDPE matrix.


Cockle shell Calcium carbonate Polymer Filler Composite Polyethylene 



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Copyright information

© Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yamuna Munusamy
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sumathi Sethupathi
    • 1
  • Chi Hong Choon
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Engineering and Green TechnologyUniversiti Tunku Abdul RahmanKamparMalaysia

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