Immobilization of heavy metal using dithiocarbamate agent

  • Lei ZhengEmail author
  • Wei Wang
  • Zifu Li
  • Lingling Zhang
  • Shikun Cheng


This research explored the influence of synthesizing temperature and time on the generation of dithiocarbamate in the form of Na salts (DTC-Na). The product with the highest DTC-Na content occurred at intermediate parameters (60 °C and 6 h). Light scattering analysis determined that the molecular weight of DTC-Na with water as solvent was 5 × 107 (weight average), indicating sizeable molecules. The ratio of the root mean square radius to the hydrodynamic radius is approximately 0.62, suggesting that the DTC-Na molecule has a compact conformation. Infrared (IR) analysis revealed that the bands’ characteristic of dithiocarbamate groups appeared at around 1000–1500 cm−1, the intensity of which decreased after the chelating process. On the other hand, oxidation of amide groups in the organic chain of DTC-Na could not be excluded during the chelation process. Immobilization efficiency of Pb(II) ion in excess of interfering ions and at different pH values was investigated. It was determined that the chelation effect of dithiocarbamate towards lead(II) was almost the same over the entire pH range (3–11), suggesting that DTC could maintain stabilization within a broad range of pH value. The capability of DTC-Na to chelate heavy metals was not weakened by competing alkali and alkaline earth metal ions.


Heavy metal immobilization Dithiocarbamate Light scattering 



This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant no. NSFC21107062). The authors gratefully acknowledge this support.


  1. 1.
    Wang W, Zheng L, Wang F, Wan X, Yin KQ, Gao XB (2010) Release of elements from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash. Front Environ Sci Eng China 4:482–489. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zheng L, Wang W, Shi YC (2010) The effects of alkaline dosage and Si/Al ratio on the immobilization of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incineration fly ash-based geopolymer. Chemosphere 79:665–671. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zheng L, Wang CW, Wang W, Shi YC, Gao XB (2011) Immobilization of MSWI fly ash through geopolymerization: effects of water-wash. Waste Manag 31:311–317. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wan X, Wang W, Ye TM, Guo YW, Gao XB (2006) A study on the chemical and mineralogical characterization of MSWI fly ash using a sequential extraction procedure. J Hazard Mater 134:197–201. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jiang JG, Wang J, Xu X, Wang W, Deng Z, Zhang Y (2004) Heavy metal stabilization in municipal solid waste incineration fly ash using heavy metal chelating agents. J Hazard Mater B113:141–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Takatuki H, Shinyithi S (1993) Hazardous waste: in view of clean, cycle and control. Jpn Central Regul Press 13:25–33Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Li YD, Richardson JB, Mark Bricka R, Niu XJ, Yang HB, Li L, Jimenez A (2009) Leaching of heavy metals from E-waste in simulated landfill columns. Waste Manag 29:2147–2150. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bednar AJ, Boyd RE, Jones WT, McGrath CJ, Johnson DR, Chappell MA, Ringelberg DB (2009) Investigations of tungsten mobility in soil using column tests. Chemosphere 75:1049–1056. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dijkstra JJ, van der Sloot HA, Comans RNJ (2006) The leaching of major and trace elements from MSWI bottom ash as a function of pH and time. Appl Geochem 21:335–351. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lo HM, Liao YL (2007) The metal-leaching and acid-neutralizing capacity of MSW incinerator ash co-disposed with MSW in landfill sites. J Hazard Mater 142:512–519. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ayşegül E, Mehtap Y, Bekir B (2007) Bi(III)4-methylpiperidinedithiocarbamate coprecipitation procedure for separation-pre-concentration of trace metal ions in water samples by flame atomic absorption. J Hazard Mater 149:160–165. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Nuri Ü, Mustafa E (2007) Removal of heavy metal ions by using dithiocarbamated-sporopollenin. Sep Purif Technol 52:461–469. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jiang JG, Wang W (1999) Experimental study on the chemical stabilization technology in treating with flyash using heavy metal chelating agent. Environ Sci (Huanjing Kexue) 20:14–18Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tiwari S, Bajpai A (2005) Metal ion extraction by dithiocarbamate function supported on polyacrylamide. React Funct Polym 64:47–54. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Benigno M, Villa VV, Eduardo C (2002) Copper complexes with dithiocarbamates derived from natural occurring amino acids: crystal and molecular structure of [Cu(en)(EtOH)(H2O)3][Cu(dtc-pro)2]. Polyhedron 21:1899–1904. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Daisuke O, Jason B, David A, Jaeger (2007) Synthesis and characterization of dithiocarbamate surfactants. Colloids Surf A Phydicochem Eng Asp 308:141–146. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Aarti VG, Stephen RD, Chun HS, Michael EH, Clint WW (2006) Characterization of lignin using multi-angle laser light scattering and atomic force microscopy. Anal Chim Acta 555:250–258. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yu PZ, Zhang GC, Bi JX, Lu XL, Wang YS, Su ZG (2007) Facile purification of mono-PEGylated interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and its characterization with multi-angle laser light scattering. Process Biochem 42:971–977. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Venkatesan KA, Srinivasan TG, Vasudeva Rao PR (2001) Cobalt-extraction studies on dithiocarbamate grafted on silica gel surface. Colloids Surf 180:277–284. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ridvan S, Ebru B, Adil D, Arzu E (2006) Removal of heavy metal ions by dithiocarbamate-anchored polymer/organosmectite composites. Appl Clay Sci 31:298–305. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lei Zheng
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Wei Wang
    • 3
  • Zifu Li
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lingling Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Shikun Cheng
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Energy and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of Science and Technology BeijingBeijingChina
  2. 2.Beijing Key Laboratory of Resource-oriented Treatment of Industrial PollutantsBeijingChina
  3. 3.School of EnvironmentTsinghua UniversityBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations