Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management

, Volume 21, Issue 1, pp 145–155 | Cite as

Waste walnut shell as an alternative bio-based filler for the EPDM: mechanical, thermal, and kinetic studies

  • A. GüngörEmail author
  • I. K. AkbayEmail author
  • T. Özdemir


In recent years, bio-based polymers and fillers are attracting the attention of researchers due to strong concerns on environmental friendly production of rubbers. In this study, the waste walnut shell was used as an alternative filler for ethylene–propylene–diene monomer rubber (EPDM). The surface of the waste walnut shell was modified with bis[3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl] tetrasulfide to achieve a better interfacial interaction with EPDM matrix. Effect of different parameters on mechanical, thermal, and rheological properties of EPDM/waste walnut shell filler composite was investigated. It was seen that the increase of walnut shell content led the increase in tensile strength. Moving die rheometer tests have shown that the addition of walnut shell improved the torque value. In addition, the thermal tests were shown that using the waste walnut shell as filler results with no considerable difference in the thermal properties. Swelling test and cross-link density analyses showed that walnut shell addition has no negative effect on cross-link density. It was concluded that the waste walnut shell could be an effective filler with its advantages of bio-based and biodegradable.


EPDM Bio-based filler Rubber Silane surface modification Walnut shell 


  1. 1.
    Özdemir T, Güngör A, Akbay IK et al (2017) Nano lead oxide and epdm composite for development of polymer based radiation shielding material: gamma irradiation and attenuation tests. Radiat Phys Chem. Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ravishankar PS (2012) Treatise on EPDM. Rubber Chem Technol 85:327–349. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Çavdar S, Özdemir T, Usanmaz A (2010) Comparative study on mechanical, thermal, viscoelastic and rheological properties of vulcanised EPDM rubber. Plast Rubber Compos 39:277–282. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Moustafa H, Darwish NA (2015) Effect of different types and loadings of modified nanoclay on mechanical properties and adhesion strength of EPDM-g-MAH/nylon 66 systems. Int J Adhes Adhes 61:15–22. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Özdemir T, Akbay IK, Uzun H, Reyhancan IA (2016) Neutron shielding of EPDM rubber with boric acid: mechanical, thermal properties and neutron absorption tests. Prog Nucl Energy. Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lourenco E, Felisberti M (2006) POLYMER Thermal and mechanical properties of in situ polymerized PS / EPDM blends. Eur Polym J 42:2632–2645. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kim W, Argento A, Flanigan C, Mielewski DF (2015) Effects of soy-based oils on the tensile behavior of EPDM rubber. Polym Test 46:33–40. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jiang Y, Zhang X, He J et al (2011) Effect of polyphenylsilsesquioxane on the ablative and flame-retardation properties of ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) composite. Polym Degrad Stab 96:949–954. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Martinez L, Nevshupa R, Felhös D et al (2011) Influence of friction on the surface characteristics of EPDM elastomers with different carbon black contents. Tribol Int 44:996–1003. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Özdemir T, Güngör A, Reyhancan İA (2017) Flexible neutron shielding composite material of EPDM rubber with boron trioxide: mechanical, thermal investigations and neutron shielding tests. Radiat Phys Chem 131:7–12. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Akbay İK, Güngör A, Özdemir T (2017) Optimization of the vulcanization parameters for ethylene–propylene–diene termonomer (EPDM)/ground waste tyre composite using response surface methodology. Polym Bull. Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Nabil H, Ismail H, Azura AR (2013) Compounding, mechanical and morphological properties of carbon-black-filled natural rubber/recycled ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer (NR/R-EPDM) blends. Polym Test 32:385–393. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Özdemir T (2008) Gamma irradiation degradation/modification of 5-ethylidene 2-norbornene (ENB)-based ethylene propylene diene rubber (EPDM) depending on ENB content of EPDM and type/content of peroxides used in vulcanization. Radiat Phys Chem 77:787–793. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Du W, Liu J, Wang Y et al (2016) Polyurethane encapsulated carbon black particles and enhanced properties of water polyurethane composite films. Prog Org Coat 97:146–152. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Burmistrov I, Gorshkov N, Ilinykh I et al (2016) Improvement of carbon black based polymer composite electrical conductivity with additions of MWCNT. Compos Sci Technol 129:79–85. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kuempel ED, Sorahan T (2010) Carbon Black. In: Schulte PA (ed) Identification of research needs to resolve the carcinogenicity of high-priority IARC carcinogens. International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, pp 61–72. Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (2010) Carbon black, titanium dioxide, and talc. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum 93:1–413Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Botros S, Eid M, Nageeb Z (2005) Thermal stability and dielectric relaxation of NR/soda lignin and NR/thiolignin composites. Egypt J Solids 28:67–83Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gopalan Nair K, Dufresne A (2003) Crab shell chitin whisker reinforced natural rubber nanocomposites. 1. Processing and swelling behavior. Biomacromolecules 4:657–665. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ramires EC, Megiatto JD, Gardrat C et al (2010) Valorization of an industrial organosolv-sugarcane bagasse lignin: characterization and use as a matrix in biobased composites reinforced with sisal fibers. Biotechnol Bioeng 107:612–621. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Intiya W, Thepsuwan U, Sirisinha C, Sae-Oui P (2017) Possible use of sludge ash as filler in natural rubber. J Mater Cycles Waste Manag 19:774–781. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    International Nut and Dried Fruit Council (2015) INC global statistical review, p 76S.
  23. 23.
    Li S, Xu S, Liu S et al (2004) Fast pyrolysis of biomass in free-fall reactor for hydrogen-rich gas. Fuel Process Technol 85:1201–1211. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Karaağaç B (2014) Use of ground pistachio shell as alternative filler in natural rubber/styrene–butadiene rubber-based rubber compounds. Polym Compos 35:245–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Menon a RR, Pillai CKS, Nando GB (1998) Physicomechanical properties of filled natural rubber vulcanizates modified with phosphorylated cashew nut shell liquid. J Appl Polym Sci 68:1303–1311.;2-%23 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Barczewski M, Matykiewicz D, Krygier A et al (2017) Characterization of poly(lactic acid) biocomposites filled with chestnut shell waste. J Mater Cycles Waste Manag. Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Patil AG, Poornachandra S, Gumageri R et al (2017) Chitosan composites reinforced with nanostructured waste fly ash. J Mater Cycles Waste Manag 19:870–883. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Shivamurthy B, Murthy K, Joseph PC et al (2014) Mechanical properties and sliding wear behavior of jatropha seed cake waste/epoxy composites. J Mater Cycles Waste Manag 17:144–156. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sae-Oui P, Sirisinha C, Thaptong P (2009) Utilization of limestone dust waste as filler in natural rubber. J Mater Cycles Waste Manag 11:166–171. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Coran AY (1964) Vulcanization. Part VI. A model and treatment for scorch delay kinetics. Rubber Chem Technol 37:689–697. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
  32. 32.
    Menard KP (2008) Dynamic mechanical analysis: a practical introduction. CRC Press, Boca RatonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    AkzoNobel (2017) Perkadox ® 14-40B-pd Product description. Accessed 16 May 2018
  34. 34.
    Uzun BB, Yaman E (2016) Pyrolysis kinetics of walnut shell and waste polyolefins using thermogravimetric analysis. J Energy Inst. Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Açıkalın K (2011) Thermogravimetric analysis of walnut shell as pyrolysis feedstock. J Therm Anal Calorim 105:145–150. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Akbay İK, Özdemir T (2016) Monomer migration and degradation of polycarbonate via UV-C irradiation within aquatic and atmospheric environments. J Macromol Sci Part A 53:340–345. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Zhang Y, Fan D, Zheng Y (2016) Comparative study on combined co-pyrolysis/gasification of walnut shell and bituminous coal by conventional and congruent-mass thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) methods. Bioresour Technol 199:382–385. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Grill A (2009) Porous pSiCOH ultralow- k dielectrics for chip interconnects prepared by PECVD. Annu Rev 39:49–69. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chemical Engineering DepartmentMersin UniversityYenişehir/MersinTurkey

Personalised recommendations