Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management

, Volume 21, Issue 1, pp 134–144 | Cite as

Synthesis and characterization of natural rubber/coal fly ash composites via latex aqueous microdispersion

  • Panu Panitchakarn
  • Jaygita Wikranvanich
  • Muenduen PhisalaphongEmail author


Composite films composed of uncured natural rubber (NR) combined with coal fly ash (CFA) and CFA treated by acid washing (CFAT), both acting as fillers, were developed. The goal was to add value to the CFA (which is an industrial waste) while improving the mechanical properties of the NR. These NR–CFA and NR–CFAT composites were fabricated using the latex aqueous microdispersion method to ensure suitable dispersion of the filler. The mechanical properties of both composites, including tensile strength, elongation at break and Young’s modulus, were improved considerably at a filler content of 20 phr compared to the original NR. Adding CFA and CFAT increased these values to 10.5 MPa, 222% and 126 and 7.7 MPa, 315% and 21.4 MPa, respectively. NR–CFA and NR–CFAT composites also exhibited substantially higher structural stability in water with only minimal swelling, as well as better resistance to toluene. The NR–CFA composite film containing CFA at 20 phr was found to have the best structural stability, mechanical properties and resistance to solvents among the specimens tested.


Natural rubber Latex Coal fly ash Composite 



The authors are grateful for the financial support from the Ratchadaphiseksomphot Endowment Fund of Chulalongkorn University for Postdoctoral Fellowship and the kind support of CFA from the pulping process in Prachinburi province of Thailand. We thank Michael D. Judge, MSc. from Edanz Group ( for editing a draft of the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Panu Panitchakarn
    • 1
  • Jaygita Wikranvanich
    • 1
  • Muenduen Phisalaphong
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Chemical Engineering Research Unit for Value Adding of Bioresources, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringChulalongkorn UniversityBangkokThailand

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