Synthesis and characterization of natural rubber/coal fly ash composites via latex aqueous microdispersion
- 93 Downloads
Composite films composed of uncured natural rubber (NR) combined with coal fly ash (CFA) and CFA treated by acid washing (CFAT), both acting as fillers, were developed. The goal was to add value to the CFA (which is an industrial waste) while improving the mechanical properties of the NR. These NR–CFA and NR–CFAT composites were fabricated using the latex aqueous microdispersion method to ensure suitable dispersion of the filler. The mechanical properties of both composites, including tensile strength, elongation at break and Young’s modulus, were improved considerably at a filler content of 20 phr compared to the original NR. Adding CFA and CFAT increased these values to 10.5 MPa, 222% and 126 and 7.7 MPa, 315% and 21.4 MPa, respectively. NR–CFA and NR–CFAT composites also exhibited substantially higher structural stability in water with only minimal swelling, as well as better resistance to toluene. The NR–CFA composite film containing CFA at 20 phr was found to have the best structural stability, mechanical properties and resistance to solvents among the specimens tested.
KeywordsNatural rubber Latex Coal fly ash Composite
The authors are grateful for the financial support from the Ratchadaphiseksomphot Endowment Fund of Chulalongkorn University for Postdoctoral Fellowship and the kind support of CFA from the pulping process in Prachinburi province of Thailand. We thank Michael D. Judge, MSc. from Edanz Group (http://www.Edanzediting.com/ac) for editing a draft of the manuscript.
- 1.Petchseechoung W (2106) Thailand industry outlook 2016–2018, rubber industry. https://www.krungsri.com/bank/getmedia/1d1b8758-8da1-44e3-af42-962b0b9f7506/IO_Rubber_2016_EN.aspx. Accessed 5 Jan 2018
- 8.Hasegawa M, Furukawa S, Asana M (2007) Utilization of the coal ash as filler of plastics and rubber products. In: Proceedings of international symposium on EcoTopia science (ISETS07). pp 842–845Google Scholar
- 9.Rattanasom N, Saowapark T, Deeprasertkul C (2007) Reinforcement of natural rubber with silica/carbon black hybrid filler. Polym Test 26:369–377. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymertesting.2006.12.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 10.Ooi ZX, Ismail H, Abu Bakar A (2013) Synergistic effect of oil palm ash filled natural rubber compound at low filler loading. Polym Test 32:38–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymertesting.2012.09.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 15.Energy Policy and Planning Office (2015) Thailand power development plan (PDP: 2015–2036). Ministry of Energy. http://www2.eppo.go.th/power/PDP2015/PDP2015.pdf. Accessed 5 Jan 2018
- 30.Dzhurkov V, Nesheva D, Scepanovic M, Nedev N, Kaschieva S, Dmitriev SN, Popovic Z (2014) Spectroscopic studies of SiOx films irradiated with high energy electrons. J Phys Conf Ser 558(012045). https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/558/1/012045