Advertisement

Mobile application in municipal waste tracking: a pilot study of “PAC waste tracker” in Bangalore city, India

  • Bhargavi NagendraEmail author
  • Arvind Lakshmisha
  • Priyanka Agarwal
REGIONAL CASE STUDY

Abstract

According to the 2011 Census, urbanization has increased faster than expected in India and will witness the largest increase in urban population in the next 4 decades followed by China. This poses an unprecedented challenge of meeting the demand for key service, especially waste management. The study focuses on the case of Bangalore, a city facing a unique solid-waste management crisis. Even with considerable advancement in collecting and segregating waste, only 20% of waste remains picked or is picked irregularly. Public Affairs Centre, a not for profit think tank in Bangalore, launched the PAC Waste Tracker app using citizen science and visual mapping to identify the various issues plaguing the waste collection mechanism in the city with inclusivity. The pilot project undertaken in the four wards has highlighted the issues arising at each and every collection point. These issues tracked for a period of 9 months which showed irregular waste collection, non-segregation of waste, inconvenience caused during collection, and non-compliance with transportation of waste through a bottom–up approach. The findings of the study were presented to local councillors, service providers, and municipal bodies ensuring policy implementation of this study and hence closing the loop of solving the issues.

Keywords

Waste management Citizen science Crowd sourcing Urbanization 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank Ms. Poornima G R, Program Officer, and Mr. Jangal Jayaram, Consultant at Public Affairs Centre for their valuable support and guidance in undertaking this study, in terms of designing and field testing the application, training of volunteers, and discussions with ward councillors. The authors also thank representatives of Society for Peoples Action for Development (SPAD), the local NGO who were our on field partners. Furthermore, we would like to thank volunteers in all four wards of Bengaluru who took time and effort to contribute to the study.

References

  1. 1.
    Joshi R, Ahmed S (2016) Status and challenges of municipal solid waste management in India: a review. Cogent Environ Sci 2(1):1139434.  https://doi.org/10.1080/23311843.2016.1139434 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Census of India (2011) Office of Registrar general and census commissioner, India. http://censusindia.gov.in/Census_And_You/area_and_population.aspx. Accessed March 2017
  3. 3.
    Government of India (2016) Solid waste management rules revised after 16 years; rules now extend to urban and industrial Areas: Javadekar. Press Information Bureau, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    The Times of India (2018) Across India, high level of toxins in groundwater. The Times of India. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/govt-body-finds-high-levels-of-groundwater-contamination-across-india/articleshow/65204273.cms. Accessed on 30 Aug 2018
  5. 5.
    Nagarajan R, Thirumalaisamy S, Lakshumanan E (2012) Impact of leachate on groundwater pollution due to non-engineered municipal solid waste landfill sites of erode city, Tamil Nadu, India. Iranian J Environ Health Sci Eng 9(1):35.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1735-2746-9-35 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kumari K, Kumar S, Rajagopal V, Khare A, Kumar R (2017) Emission from open burning of municipal solid waste in India. Environ Technol 29:1–14.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2017.1351489 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wiedinmye C, Yokelson RJ, Gullett BK (2014) Global emissions of trace gases, particulate matter, and hazardous air pollutants from open burning of domestic waste. Environ Sci Technol 48(16):9523–9530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kumar S, Smith SR, Fowler G, Velis C, Kumar SJ, Arya S, Cheeseman C (2017) Challenges and opportunities associated with waste management in India. R Soc Open Sci 4(3):160764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Shekdar AV (2009) Sustainable solid waste management: an integrated approach for Asian countries. Waste Manag 29:1438–1448.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2008.08.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Troschinetz AM (2009) Sustainable recycling of municipal solid waste in developing countries. Waste Manag, 915–923Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Paulos E, Honicky R, Hooker B (2009) Citizen science: enabling participatory urbanism. In: Foth M (ed) Handbook of research on urban informatics: the practice and promise of the real-time city. IGI Global, Hershey, pp 414–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bonney R, Shirk JL, Phillips TB, Wiggins A, Ballard HL, Miller-Rushing AJ, Parrish JK (2014) Next steps for citizen science. Science 343(6178):1436–1437.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1251554 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ellwood E (2018) How citizen science is helping solve conservation problems. Elsevier. https://www.journals.elsevier.com/biological-conservation/article-collections/how-citizen-science-is-helping-solve-conservation-problems. Accessed Nov 2018
  14. 14.
    Citizenscience.org. (n.d.). Citizenscience.org. https://www.citizenscience.org. Accessed 11 Nov 2018
  15. 15.
    Haklay M (2013) Citizen Science and volunteered geographic information: overview and typology of participation. crowdsourcing geographic knowledge. Dordrecht: Springer.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-4587-2_7 Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Anon (2015) Rise of the citizen scientist. Nature 524(7565):265.  https://doi.org/10.1038/524265a Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lewenstein BV (2016) Can we understand citizen science? JCOM 15 (01), EGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chandler M, See L, Copas K, Bonde AM, López BC, Danielsen F, … Rosemartin A (2017) Contribution of citizen science towards international biodiversity monitoring. Biol Cons 213:280–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dickinson JL, Shirk J, Bonter D, Bonney R, Crain RL, Martin J, …Purcell K (2012) The current state of citizen science as a tool for ecological research and public engagement. Front Ecol Environ 10(6):291–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chari R, Matthews LJ, Blumenthal MS, Edelman AF, Jones T (2017) The promise of community citizen science, Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND corporation, PE-256-RC, 2017. As of January 08, 2019. https://www.rand.org/pubs/perspectives/PE256.html  
  21. 21.
    Ramachandra T, Bachamanda S (2006) Environmental audit of municipal solid waste management. http://wgbis.ces.iisc.ernet.in/biodiversity/pubs/ces_tr/TR118_SPoonancha/Index.htm. Accessed 22 Mar 2017
  22. 22.
    Desouza KC, Bhagwatwar A (2012) Citizen apps to solve complex urban problems. J Urban Technol 19(3):107–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Disha Rajkumar KS, Santhosh Rebello A (2016) A study in mobile usage and data penetration in India using predictive analytics. Int J Latest Trends Eng Technol, Special Issue SACAIM, 260–265Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cooper CB, Dickinson J, Phillips T, Bonney R (2007) Citizen science as a tool for conservation in residential ecosystems. Ecol Soc 12(2):1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Census of India (2011) Census 2011. http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011census/dchb/2918_PART_A_DCHB_BANGALORE.pdf4. Accessed Mar 11 2017
  26. 26.
    BBMP (2016) Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike. http://bbmp.gov.in/documents/10180/512162/City+Statistics+New+Microsoft+Office+Word+Document.pdf/148f68. Accessed Mar 10 2017
  27. 27.
    National Institute of Urban Affairs (2015) Compedium of good practices- urban solid waste management in Indian Cities. NIUA, DelhiGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    KSPCB (2014) Municipal solid waste annual report 2013–14 of Karnataka State Pollution Control Board, ANNEXURE-II [Schedule-II of Rule 6 (1)(3) & 7(2)] from https://www.kspcb.gov.in/MSW%20Annual%20Report%20%202013-14%20.pdf
  29. 29.
  30. 30.
  31. 31.
    CPHEEO (2016) Municipal solid waste management manual, Part-1: an overview. Delhi: ministry of urban development. http://moud.gov.in/pdf/57f1f0a614e7aAdvisory%20on%20Improving%20Municipal%20Solid%20Waste%20Manageemnt%20Services08.pdf. Accessed 8 Mar 2017

Copyright information

© Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.1Public Affairs CentreBangaloreIndia
  2. 2.University of KasselKasselGermany

Personalised recommendations