Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management

, Volume 18, Issue 4, pp 599–607 | Cite as

Lead contamination in surface soil on roads from used lead–acid battery recycling in Dong Mai, Northern Vietnam

  • Takashi Fujimori
  • Akifumi Eguchi
  • Tetsuro Agusa
  • Nguyen Minh Tue
  • Go Suzuki
  • Shin Takahashi
  • Pham Hung Viet
  • Shinsuke Tanabe
  • Hidetaka Takigami
SPECIAL FEATURE: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Recent researches on Thermal Treatment and Emission Control (9th i-CIPEC)


Used lead–acid battery (ULAB) recycling has caused numerous health and environmental issues in developing countries. Surface soil pollution from ULAB recycling activities has been linked with elevated levels of lead in human blood. We measured surface soil lead in and surrounding the ULAB recycling village of Hung Yen in northern Vietnam in 2011, 2013, and 2014. The data were analyzed statistically and discussed with respect to distance from the contamination source, year of measurement, contamination pathway, and countermeasures against the contamination. Transportation routes from the smelter or collection site displayed the greatest concentration of surface soil lead (median 6400–10,000 mg/kg). Surface soil lead decreased significantly with distance along the road from the ULAB recycling site, although such a decrease was not observed for rice fields, agricultural roads, or garden soil. Re-suspension and adherence by traffic were identified as key pollution pathways. Distance from the source, covering of the surface of roads, construction of walls, and position relative to the source were shown to be the most effective factors in the reduction of surface soil lead pollution. Application of a combination of these measures should result in improvement in the health of residents.


Used lead–acid battery Lead Surface soil Field portable X-ray fluorescence 



We thank those who live in DM village for permission of measurement; CETASD staffs and students (Ha Noi Univ. of Sci.) for providing useful information and coordination in northern Vietnam; T. Noguchi (Ehime Univ.), A. Yoshida (NIES), and M. Kojima (IDE-JETRO) for helping fieldwork in 2011; A. Goto (Ehime Univ.) for helping fieldwork in 2013; and C. Nishimura (Kyoto Univ.), Y. Tsujisawa (Ehime Univ.), N. Uchida (NIES), and V. T. M. Lan (CETASD) for helping fieldwork in 2014.

Supplementary material

10163_2016_527_MOESM1_ESM.doc (6.2 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 6345 kb)


  1. 1.
    ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry) (2007) Tox-Guide™ for lead.
  2. 2.
    Romieu I, Lacasana M, McConnell R (1997) Lead exposure in Latin America and the Caribbean. Environ Health Perspect 105:398–405. doi: 10.2307/3433336 Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fewtrell LJ, Pruss-Ustun A, Landrigan P, Ayuso-Mateos JL (2004) Estimating the global burden of disease of mild mental retardation and cardiovascular diseases from environmental lead exposure. Environ Res 94:120–133. doi: 10.1016/S0013-9351(03)00132-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gottesfeld P, Pokhrel AK (2011) Review: lead exposure in battery manufacturing and recycling in developing countries and among children in nearby communities. J Occup Environ Hyg 8:520–532. doi: 10.1080/15459624.2011.601710 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Matte TD, Figueroa JP, Ostrowski S, Burr G, Jackson-Hunt L, Keenlyside RA, Baker EL (1989) Lead poisoning among household members exposed to lead-acid battery repair shops in Kingston, Jamaica. Int J Epidemiol 18:874–881. doi: 10.1093/ije/18.4.874 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Haefliger P, Mathieu-Nolf M, Lociciro S, Ndiaye C, Coly M, Diouf A, Faye AL, Sow A, Tempowski J, Pronczuk J, Filipe Junior AP, Bertollini R, Neira M (2009) Mass lead intoxication from informal used lead-acid battery recycling in Dakar, Senegal. Environ Health Perspect 117:1535–1540. doi: 10.1289/ehp.0900696 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zahran S, Laidlaw MAS, McElmurry SP, Filippelli GM, Taylor M (2013) Linking source and effect: resuspended soil lead, air lead, and children’s blood lead levels in Detroit, Michigan. Environ Sci Technol 47:2839–2845. doi: 10.1021/es303854c CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Small MJ, Nunn AB III, Forslund BL, Daily DA (1995) Source attribution of elevated residential soil lead near a battery recycling site. Environ Sci Technol 29:883–895. doi: 10.1021/es00004a008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Goyal A, Small MJ, von Stackelberg K, Burmistrov D, Jones N (2005) Estimation of fugitive lead emission rates from secondary lead facilities using hierarchical bayesian models. Environ Sci Technol 39:4929–4937. doi: 10.1021/es035465e CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Noguchi T, Itai T, Tue NM, Agusa T, Ha NN, Horai S, Trang PTK, Viet PH, Takahashi S, Tanabe S (2014) Exposure assessment of lead to workers and children in the battery recycling craft village, Dong Mai, Vietnam. J Mater Cycles Waste Manag 16:46–51. doi: 10.1007/s10163-013-0159-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Taylor PD, Ramsey MH, Potts PJ (2004) Balancing measurement uncertainty against financial benefits: comparison of in situ and ex situ analysis of contaminated land. Environ Sci Technol 38:6824–6831. doi: 10.1021/es049739p CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Carr R, Zhang C, Moles N, Harder M (2008) Identification and mapping of heavy metal pollution in soils of a sports ground in Galway City, Ireland, using a portable XRF analyser and GIS. Environ Geochem Health 30:45–52. doi: 10.1007/s10653-007-9106-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hurkamp K, Raab T, Volkel J (2009) Two and three-dimensional quantification of lead contamination in alluvial soils of a historic mining area using field portable X-ray fluorescence (FPXRF) analysis. Geomorphology 110:28–36. doi: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2008.12.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Radu T, Diamond D (2009) Comparison of soil pollution concentrations determined using AAS and portable XRF techniques. J Hazard Mater 171:1168–1171. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.06.062 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chou J, Elbers D, Clement G, Bursavich B, Tian T, Zheng W, Yang K (2010) In situ monitoring (field screening) and assessment of lead and arsenic contaminants in the greater New Orleans area using a portable X-ray fluorescence analyser. J Environ Monit 12:1722–1729. doi: 10.1039/c0em00012d CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jang M (2010) Application of portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) for heavy metal analysis of soils in crop fields near abandoned mine sites. Environ Geochem Health 32:207–216. doi: 10.1007/s10653-009-9276-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Schwarz K, Pickett STA, Lathrop RG, Weathers KC, Pouyat RV, Cadenasso ML (2012) The effects of the urban built environment on the spatial distribution of lead in residential soils. Environ Pollut 163:32–39. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2011.12.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fujimori T, Takigami H (2014) Pollution distribution of heavy metals in surface soil at an informal electronic-waste recycling workshop. Environ Geochem Health 36:159–168. doi: 10.1007/s10653-013-9526-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Itai T, Otsuka M, Asante KA, Muto M, Opoku-Ankomah Y, Ansa-Asare OD, Tanabe S (2014) Variation and distribution of metals and metalloids in soil/ash mixtures from Agbogbloshie e-waste recycling site in Accra, Ghana. Sci Total Environ 470–471:707–716. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.10.037 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kalnicky DJ, Singhvi R (2001) Field portable XRF analysis of environmental samples. J Hazard Mater 83:93–122. doi: 10.1016/S0304-3894(00)00330-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    US EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) (2007) Field portable X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy for the determination of elemental concentrations in soil and sediment, Method 6200Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    QCVN 03:2008/BTNMT (2008) National technical regulation on the allowable limits of heavy metals in the soil, Socialist republic of Vietnam (in Vietnamese) Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Young TM, Heeraman DA, Sirin G, Ashbaugh LL (2002) Resuspension of soil as a source of airborne lead near industrial facilities and highways. Environ Sci Technol 36:2484–2490. doi: 10.1021/es015609u CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Layton DW, Beamer PI (2009) Migration of contaminated soil and airborne particulates to indoor dust. Environ Sci Technol 43:8199–8205. doi: 10.1021/es9003735 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sehmel GA (1973) Particle resuspension from an asphalt road caused by car and truck traffic. Atmos Environ 7:291–309. doi: 10.1016/0004-6981(73)90078-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lough GC, Schauer JJ, Park J-S, Shafer MM, Deminter JT, Weinstein JP (2005) Emissions of metals associated with motor vehicle roadways. Environ Sci Technol 39:826–836. doi: 10.1021/es048715f CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Takashi Fujimori
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Akifumi Eguchi
    • 4
    • 5
  • Tetsuro Agusa
    • 5
  • Nguyen Minh Tue
    • 5
  • Go Suzuki
    • 3
  • Shin Takahashi
    • 5
    • 6
  • Pham Hung Viet
    • 7
  • Shinsuke Tanabe
    • 5
  • Hidetaka Takigami
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Global Ecology, Graduate School of Global Environmental StudiesKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of EngineeringKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  3. 3.Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management ResearchNational Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES)TsukubaJapan
  4. 4.Center for Environmental Health SciencesNational Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES)TsukubaJapan
  5. 5.Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES)Ehime UniversityMatsuyamaJapan
  6. 6.Faculty of Agriculture, Center of Advanced Technology for the EnvironmentEhime UniversityMatsuyamaJapan
  7. 7.Centre for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD)Ha Noi University of ScienceHanoiVietnam

Personalised recommendations