Advertisement

Characterization of oily sludge from a wastewater treatment plant flocculation-flotation unit in a petroleum refinery and its treatment implications

  • Mait Kriipsalu
  • Marcia MarquesEmail author
  • Aleksander Maastik
Original Article

Abstract

Partly due to the complex and variable composition of oily sludge generated by the petroleum industry, cost-effective treatment and proper disposal pose considerable challenges worldwide. In this study, an extended component-based analysis of the oily sludge from a flocculation-flotation unit of a wastewater treatment system in a refinery in Sweden was carried out over 1 year. The heterogeneity of the oily sludge is illustrated by the wide ranges of concentrations found for different chemical components, particularly metals. Among the petroleum hydrocarbons, the most abundant compounds were nonpolar aliphatic hydrocarbons (63.7 ± 16.7 g kg−1); from the benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene group, xylenes (91–240 mg kg−1) were most abundant; and among polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, naphthalene (25.7 ± 21.4), fluorene (27.25 ± 10.0), and phenanthrene (43.8 ± 18.4 mg kg−1) were most abundant (all results in terms of dry matter). Based on the EU guidelines and the mean concentration values for metals found in the oily sludge, e.g., Pb (135.4 ± 125.8), Cu (105.2 ± 79.1), Hg (42.8 ± 31.3), Ni (320 ± 267.4), and Zn (1321.7 ± 529.9 mg kg−1), disposal of oily sludge even in landfills for hazardous waste is not allowed. The organic content of the sludge can be reduced through biotreatment, but not the metal content. A multistep component-based treatment scheme is therefore needed.

Key words

Petroleum hydrocarbons TPH PAH Biotreatment Metals 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Coelho A, Castro AV, Dezotti M, Sant’Anna GLJ (2006) Treatment of petroleum refinery sourwater by advanced oxidation processes. J Hazard Mater 137:178–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Al Zarooni M, Elshorbagy W (2006) Characterization and assessment of Al Ruwais refinery wastewater. J Hazard Mater A36:398–405Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    van Oudenhoven JACM, Cooper GR, Cricchi G, Gineste J, Pötzl R, Vissers J, Martin DE (1995) Oil refinery waste disposal methods, quantities and costs — 1993 survey. CONCAWE, Brussels, pp 39Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Delvigne GAL (2002) Physical appearance of oil in oil-contaminated sediment. Spill Sci Technol B 8:55–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ururahy AS, Pereira NJ (2002) Oily sludge biotreatment. In: Proceedings of the 9th Annual International Petroleum Environmental Conference. October 22–25, 2002, AlbuquerqueGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Louvisse AMT, Freire NO, Teixeira CL (1994) Metodologia para caracterização de Borras de petróleo. In: Anais I Mesa Redonda Sobre Química Analítica Ambiental. In: Coletânea de trabalhos … Salvador. Petrobrās SEREC CENSOR, 107p, CuritibaGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ururahy AFP, Marins MDM, Vital RL, Gabardo IT, Pereira NJ (1998) Effect of aeration on biodegradation of petroleum waste. Rev Microbiol 29:254–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fromm CH, White SL (1995) Pollution prevention in the petroleum refining industry. In: Freeman HM (ed) Industrial pollution prevention handbook. McGraw-Hill, McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 739–752Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jean DS, Lee DJ (1999) Expression deliquoring of oily sludge from a petroleum refinery plant. Waste Manage 19:349–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zhong J, Sun X, Wang C (2003) Treatment of oily wastewater produced from refinery processes using flocculation and ceramic membrane filtration. Sep Purif Technol 32:93–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Vesilind PA, Wallinmaa S, Martel CJ (1991) Freeze-thaw sludge conditioning and double-layer compression. Can J Civ Eng 18:1078–1083CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jean DS, Lee DJ, Wu JCS (1999) Separation of oil from oily sludge by freezing and thawing. Wat Res 33:1756–1759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chen G, He G (2003) Separation of water and oil from water-in-oil emulsion by freeze/thaw method. Sep Purif Technol 31:83–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    OJ L 011, 16/012003, Council Decision 2003/33/EC on establishing criteria and procedures for the acceptance of waste at landfills. European Council, Luxembourg, pp 0027–0049Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    OJ L 182, 16071999, Council Directive 1999/31/EU on the landfill of waste. European Council, Luxembourg, pp 0001–0019Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    OJ L 332, 28122000, Directive 2000/76/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the incineration of waste. European Council, Luxembourg, pp 0091–0111Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    OJ L 365, 31121994, Council Directive 94/67/EC on the incineration of hazardous waste. European Council, Luxembourg, pp 0034–0045Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mater L, Sperb RM, Madureira LAS, Rosin AP, Correa AXR, Radetski CM (2006) Proposal of a sequential treatment methodology for the safe reuse of oil sludge-contaminated soil. J Hazard Mater B136:967–971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shie J-L, Lin J-P, Chang C-Y, Lee D-J, Wu C-H (2003) Pyrolysis of oil sludge with additives of sodium and potassium compounds. Resour Conserv Recy 39:51–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jørgensen KS, Puustinen J, Suortti A-M (2000) Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil by composting in biopiles. Environ Pollut 107:245–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bartha R, Bossert I (1984) The treatment and disposal of petroleum refinery wastes. In: Atlas RM (ed) Petroleum microbiology. Macmillan, New York, pp 533–577Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bossert I, Kachel WM, Bartha R (1984) Fate of hydrocarbons during oily sludge disposal in soil. Appl Environ Microb 47: 763–767Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Loehr RC, Webster MT (1996) Performance of a long-term, field-scale bioremediation processes. J Hazard Mater 50:105–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hejazi RF, Husain T, Khan FI (2003) Landfarming operation of oily sludge in an arid region — human health risk assessment. J Hazard Mater 99:287–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Milne BJ, Baheri HR, Hill GA (1998) Composting of heavy oil refinery sludge. Environ Prog 17:24–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Namkoong W, Hwang E-Y, Park J-S, Choi J-Y (2002) Bioremediation of diesel-contaminated soil with composting. Environ Pollut 119:23–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    van Gestel K, Mergaert J, Swings J, Coosemans J, Ryckeboer J (2003) Bioremediation of diesel oil-contaminated soil by composting with biowaste. Environ Pollut 125:361–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Samson R, Greer CW, Hawkes T, Desrochers R, Nelson CH, St-Cyr M (1994) Monitoring an aboveground bioreactor at a petroleum refinery site using radiorespirometry and gene probes: effects of winter conditions and clayey soil. In: Hinchee RE, Alleman BC, Hoeppel RE, Miller RN (eds) Hydrocarbon bioremediation. Lewis, Boca Raton, pp 329–333Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Puustinen J, Jørgensen KS, Strandberg T, Suortti A-M (1995) Bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil from service stations: evaluation of biological treatment. In: van den Brink WJ, Bosman R, Arendt F (eds) Contaminated soil 95. Kluwer, Deventer, pp 1325–1326Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Koning M, Hupe K, Lüth J-C, Cohrs I, Quandt C, Stegmann R (1998) Comparative investigations into the biological degradation of contaminants in fixed-bed and slurry reactors. In: Contaminated soil 98. Thomas Telford, London, pp 531–538Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Nano G, Borroni A, Rota R (2003) Combined slurry and solid-phase bioremediation of diesel-contaminated soils. J Hazard Mater 100(1–3):79–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Castaldi FJR (2003) Tank-based bioremediation of petroleum waste sludges. Environ Prog 22:25–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Winblad von Walter J (2006) Stormwater research at Shell refinery in Gothenburg. Department of Technology, University of Kalmar, Kalmar, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Miljöredovisning (2003) Shell Raffinaderi AB. Annual Report. Shell, GotenburgGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Schäfer H, Muyzer G (2001) Methods in microbiology. Academic, London, pp 425–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Naturvårdsverket (2002) Assessment of contamination level. Swedish guideline values for levels in polluted soils. http://www.internat.naturvardsverket.se
  37. 37.
    Baldrian P (2003) Interactions of heavy metals with white-rot fungi. Enzyme Microb Tech 32:78–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wilhelm SM, Bloom N (2000) Mercury in petroleum. Fuel Process Technol 63(1):1–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Huebra M, Elizalde MP, Almela A (2003) Hg(II) extraction by LIX 34 mercury removal from sludge. Hydrometallurgy 68:33–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kriipsalu M, Marques M, Nammari DR, Hogland W (2007) Biotreatment of oily sludge: the contribution of amendment material to the content of target contaminants and the biodegradation dynamics. J Hazard Mater 148(3):616–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mait Kriipsalu
    • 2
  • Marcia Marques
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  • Aleksander Maastik
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of TechnologyUniversity of KalmarKalmarSweden
  2. 2.Estonian University of Life SciencesTartuEstonia
  3. 3.Department of Sanitary and Environmental EngineeringRio de Janeiro State UniversityRio de JaneiroBrazil

Personalised recommendations