Invertebrate Neuroscience

, Volume 12, Issue 2, pp 103–117 | Cite as

The anatomical pathways for antennal sensory information in the central nervous system of the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus

  • Atsushi Yoritsune
  • Hitoshi AonumaEmail author
Original Paper


Antennae are one of the major organs to detect chemo- and mechanosensory cue in crickets. Little is known how crickets process and integrate different modality of information in the brain. We thus used a number of different anatomical techniques to gain an understanding of the neural pathways extending from the antennal sensory neurons up to centers in the brain. We identified seven antennal sensory tracts (assigned as T1–7) utilizing anterograde dye filling from the antennal nerve. Tracts T1–T4 project into the antennal lobe (AL), while tracts T5 and T6 course into the dorsal region of the deutocerebrum or the suboesophageal ganglion, and finally, tract T7 terminates in the ventral area of flagellar afferent (VFA). By analyzing autofluorescence images of the AL, we identified 49 sexually isomorphic glomeruli on the basis of shape, relative position and size. On the basis of our sensory-tract data, we assigned the glomeruli into one of four separate groups. We then three-dimensionally reconstructed the internal structures in the AL (glomeruli) and the VFA (layers). Next in the protocerebrum, we identified both the tracts and their terminations from the AL and VFA. We found that 10 tracts originate in the AL, whereas there are at least eight tracts from the VFA. Several tracts from the AL share their routes with those from the VFA, but their termination areas are segregated. We now have a better anatomical understanding of the pathways for the antennal information in cricket.


Insect Brain Antennal lobe Dorsal lobe Projection neuron 



α-Lobe of the mushroom body


Accessory antenno-cerebral tract


Antenno-cerebral tract


Antero-dorsal lateral horn


Antennal lobe


Projection neuron originating from the antennal lobe




Antero-ventral lateral horn


β-Lobe of the mushroom body


Anterior calyx of the mushroom body


Central complex


Posterior calyx of the mushroom body


Dorsal lobe




Dorsal protocerebrum


Inner antenno-cerebral tract


Inferior dorsal protocerebrum


Inferior lateral protocerebrum






Lateral horn


Outer antenno-cerebral tract


Postero-dorsal lateral horn


Projection neuron


Suboesophageal ganglion


Ventral area of flagellar afferents


Projection neuron originating from the ventral area of flagellar afferents


Ventro-lateral protocerebrum


Visual tract


Unknown tract



We are grateful to Dr. Lukowiak K. for his critical reading of this manuscript. We also thank Drs. Sakura M., Watanabe T., Hiraguchi T. and Okada R. for their technical supports and for useful discussion. This research was supported by grants-in-aid for Scientific Research (KAKENHI) from the MEXT, Scientific Research on Priority Areas (Area No. 454) to H. Aonuma (No. 17075001) and from the JSPS to H. Aonuma (No. 23300113).

Conflict of interest


Supplementary material

10158_2012_137_MOESM1_ESM.mp4 (44 kb)
Arrangements of T1-T4 tracts in the AL shown in Fig. 2B. Stacked images of the AL obtained from optical sections made with a CLSM and made up as a 3D animation. (MP4 44 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Institute for Electronic ScienceHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan

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