Risk factors for kidney disease among HIV-1 positive persons in the methadone program
Kidney injury is a serious comorbidity among HIV-infected patients. Intravenous drug use is listed as one of the risk factors for impaired renal function; however, this group is rarely assessed for specific renal-related risks.
Patients attending methadone program from 1994 to 2015 were included in the study. Data collected included demographic data, laboratory tests, antiretroviral treatment history, methadone dosing and drug abstinence. Patients’ drug abstinence was checked monthly on personnel demand. We have evaluated two study outcomes: (1) having at least one or (2) three eGFR < 60 ml/min (MDRD formula).
In total, 267 persons, with 2593 person-years of follow-up were included into analyses. At the time of analyses, 251 (94%) were on antiretroviral therapy (ARV). Fifty-two (19.5%) patients had 1eGFR and 20 (7.5%) 3eGFR < 60. In univariate analysis, factors significantly increasing the odds of impaired renal function were: female gender, detectable HIV RNA on ART, age at registration per 5 years older, atazanavir use and time on antiretroviral treatment per 1 year longer. In the multivariate model, only female gender (OR 4.7; p = 0.002), time on cART (OR 1.11; p = 0.01) and baseline eGFR (OR 0.71; p = 0.001) were statistically significant.
We have demonstrated a high rate of kidney function impairment among HIV-1 positive patients in the methadone program. All risk factors for decreased eGFR in this subpopulation of patients were similar to those described for general HIV population with very high prevalence in women. These findings imply the need for more frequent kidney function monitoring in this subgroup of patients.
KeywordsChronic kidney disease HIV Intravenous drug use Methadone
This study was supported by the Research Development Foundation in Hospital for Infectious Diseases, Warsaw, Poland.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee at which the studies were conducted (IRB approval number AKBE/40/17) and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Due to study design (retrospective analysis of the electronic database) informed consent is not required.
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