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Clinical and Experimental Nephrology

, Volume 22, Issue 1, pp 126–132 | Cite as

The incidence of the nephrotic syndrome in childhood in Germany

  • Ingo Franke
  • Malik AydinEmail author
  • Corinna Elke Llamas Lopez
  • Lisa Kurylowicz
  • Rainer Ganschow
  • Michael Lentze
  • Mark Born
Original article

Abstract

Background

The incidence of childhood nephrotic syndrome (NS) in Germany is not well known.

Methods

An ESPED-based nationwide collection of epidemiological data of children in 2005 and 2006.

Result

The mean age of NS at onset was 5.5 ± 3.7 years. The gender ratio of boys to girls was 1.8:1. The average length of stay was 15.5 ± 11.2 days, with younger children remaining significantly longer in hospital. Steroid-resistance was more common in children ≥8 years (p = 0.023). Focal-segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) was more common in children >10 years (p = 0.029). The ratio of males to females with FSGS was 1:1.9, thus the FSGS risk for girls at onset was 3.3-times greater. Considering the available data, the incidence of NS in Germany is 1.2/100,000 in the population <18 years, of which 1.0/100,000 are steroid-sensitive.

Conclusion

Compared with international data, which primarily focused on regional and small populations, this is the largest study about the incidence of the childhood NS.

Keywords

Nephrotic syndrome Childhood Epidemiology Incidence ESPED 

Abbreviations

ALOS

Average length of stay

APN

Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Pädiatrische Nephrologie (Society of Paediatric nephrology)

ARF

Acute renal failure

CNS

Congenital nephrotic syndrome

DGKJ

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Kinder- und Jugendmedizin

DMS

Diffuse mesangial sclerosis

ESPED

Erhebungseinheit für Seltene Pädiatrische Erkrankungen in Deutschland

FSGS

Focal-segmental glomerulosclerosis

HIV

Human imunnodeficiency virus

HSP

Henoch-Schönlein purpura

LRTI

Lower respiratory tract infection

MCNS

Minimal-change-glomerulonephritis

MesPGN

Mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis

MPGN

Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis

NS

Nephrotic syndrome

PNS

Primary nephrotic syndrome

SNS

Secondary nephrotic syndrome

SRNS

Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome

SSNS

Steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome

Notes

Acknowledgements

The questionnaire was developed in consultation with the members of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Pädiatrische Nephrologie (APN) study committee and the survey was inaugurated as an APN-supported study. This study was funded by Bonner Elternverein für nierenkranke Kinder. We thank the Erhebungseinheit für Seltene Pädiatrische Erkrankungen in Deutschland (ESPED) for their exceptional cooperation and collaboration.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have declared that no conflicts of interest exist.

Human and animal rights

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Faculty of Medicine, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-University, Bonn/Germany at which the studies were conducted (IRB Approval Number 081/05) and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

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Copyright information

© Japanese Society of Nephrology 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ingo Franke
    • 1
  • Malik Aydin
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
    Email author
  • Corinna Elke Llamas Lopez
    • 1
  • Lisa Kurylowicz
    • 1
  • Rainer Ganschow
    • 1
  • Michael Lentze
    • 1
  • Mark Born
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of General PaediatricsUniversity Children’s Hospital BonnBonnGermany
  2. 2.Centre of Biomedical Education and Research, Helios University Children’s Hospital WuppertalUniversity of Witten/HerdeckeWittenGermany
  3. 3.Department of Radiology, Paediatric RadiologyUniversity of BonnBonnGermany
  4. 4.Helios University Children’s Hospital WuppertalUniversity of Witten/HerdeckeWuppertalGermany

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