Impaired endogenous nighttime melatonin secretion relates to intrarenal renin–angiotensin system activation and renal damage in patients with chronic kidney disease
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Activation of the intrarenal renin–angiotensin system (RAS) plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hypertension. The circadian rhythm of intrarenal RAS activation leads to renal damage and hypertension, which are associated with diurnal blood pressure (BP) variation. The activation of intrarenal RAS following reactive oxygen species (ROS) activation, sympathetic hyperactivity and nitric oxide (NO) inhibition leads to the development of renal damage. Melatonin is a hormone regulating the circadian rhythm, and has multiple functions such as anti-oxidant and anti-adrenergic effects and enhancement of NO bioavailability. Nocturnal melatonin concentrations are lower in CKD patients. However, it is not known if impaired endogenous melatonin secretion is related to BP, intrarenal RAS, or renal damage in CKD patients.
We recruited 53 CKD patients and conducted 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring. urine was collected during the daytime and nighttime. We investigated the relationship among the melatonin metabolite urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (U-aMT6s), BP, renal function, urinary angiotensinogen (U-AGT), and urinary albumin (U-Alb).
Patients’ U-aMT6s levels were significantly and negatively correlated with clinical parameters such as renal function, systolic BP, U-AGT, and U-Alb, during both day and night. Multiple regression analyses for U-aMT6s levels were performed using age, gender, renal function, and each parameter (BPs, U-AGT or U-Alb), at daytime and nighttime. U-aMT6s levels were significantly associated with U-AGT (β = −0.31, p = 0.044) and U-Alb (β = −0.25, p = 0.025) only at night.
Impaired nighttime melatonin secretion may be associated with nighttime intrarenal RAS activation and renal damage in CKD patients.
KeywordsMelatonin Urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin Intrarenal renin–angiotensin system Urinary angiotensinogen Blood pressure Chronic kidney disease
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Conflict of interest
The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.
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