Advertisement

Clinical and Experimental Nephrology

, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp 14–22 | Cite as

Clinical value of ambulatory blood pressure: Is it time to recommend for all patients with hypertension?

  • Yalcin Solak
  • Kazuomi Kario
  • Adrian Covic
  • Nathan Bertelsen
  • Baris Afsar
  • Abdullah Ozkok
  • Andrzej Wiecek
  • Mehmet KanbayEmail author
Review Article

Abstract

Hypertension is a very common disease, and office measurements of blood pressure are frequently inaccurate. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM) offers a more accurate diagnosis, more detailed readings of average blood pressures, better blood pressure measurement during sleep, fewer false positives by detecting more white-coat hypertension, and fewer false negatives by detecting more masked hypertension. ABPM offers better management of clinical outcomes. For example, based on more accurate measurements of blood pressure variability, ABPM demonstrates that taking antihypertensive medication at night leads to better controlled nocturnal blood pressure, which translates into less end organ damage and fewer clinical complications of hypertension. For these reasons, albeit some shortcomings which were discussed, ABPM should be considered as a first-line tool for diagnosing and managing hypertension.

Keywords

Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring Hypertension Cardiovascular disease 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Authors have no conflict of interest.

Financial support

None.

References

  1. 1.
    Go AS, Mozaffarian D, Roger VL, Benjamin EJ, Berry JD, Blaha MJ, et al. Executive summary: heart disease and stroke statistics–2014 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2014;129(3):399–410.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cutler JA, Sorlie PD, Wolz M, Thom T, Fields LE, Roccella EJ. Trends in hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control rates in United States adults between 1988-1994 and 1999-2004. Hypertension. 2008;52(5):818–27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Turner JR, Viera AJ, Shimbo D. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in clinical practice: a review. Am J Med. 2015;128(1):14–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bliziotis IA, Destounis A, Stergiou GS. Home versus ambulatory and office blood pressure in predicting target organ damage in hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Hypertens. 2012;30(7):1289–99.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Head GA. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is ready to replace clinic blood pressure in the diagnosis of hypertension: pro side of the argument. Hypertension. 2014;64(6):1175–81 discussion 81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Redon J, Lurbe E. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is ready to replace clinic blood pressure in the diagnosis of hypertension: con side of the argument. Hypertension. 2014;64(6):1169–74 discussion 74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Franklin SS, Thijs L, Hansen TW, O’Brien E, Staessen JA. White-coat hypertension: new insights from recent studies. Hypertension. 2013;62(6):982–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ogedegbe G. Labeling and hypertension: it is time to intervene on its negative consequences. Hypertension. 2010;56(3):344–5.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Clinical guideline 127. Hypertension: clinical management of primary hypertension in adults. 2011 [09/05/2015]. http://guidance.nice.org.uk/CG127/Guidance
  10. 10.
    Hermida RC, Smolensky MH, Ayala DE, Portaluppi F. 2013 ambulatory blood pressure monitoring recommendations for the diagnosis of adult hypertension, assessment of cardiovascular and other hypertension-associated risk, and attainment of therapeutic goals. Chronobiol Int. 2013;30(3):355–410.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Terawaki H, Metoki H, Nakayama M, Ohkubo T, Kikuya M, Asayama K, et al. Masked hypertension determined by self-measured blood pressure at home and chronic kidney disease in the Japanese general population: the Ohasama study. Hypertens Res. 2008;31(12):2129–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hermida RC, Ayala DE, Smolensky MH, Fernandez JR, Mojon A, Crespo JJ, et al. Chronotherapeutics of conventional blood pressure-lowering medications: simple, low-cost means of improving management and treatment outcomes of hypertensive-related disorders. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2014;16(2):412.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kanbay M, Turkmen K, Ecder T, Covic A. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring: from old concepts to novel insights. Int Urol Nephrol. 2012;44(1):173–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    de la Sierra A, Segura J, Banegas JR, Gorostidi M, de la Cruz JJ, Armario P, et al. Clinical features of 8295 patients with resistant hypertension classified on the basis of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Hypertension. 2011;57(5):898–902.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hodgkinson J, Mant J, Martin U, Guo B, Hobbs FD, Deeks JJ, et al. Relative effectiveness of clinic and home blood pressure monitoring compared with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in diagnosis of hypertension: systematic review. BMJ. 2011;342:d3621.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pickering TG, James GD, Boddie C, Harshfield GA, Blank S, Laragh JH. How common is white coat hypertension? JAMA. 1988;259(2):225–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    O’Brien E, Parati G, Stergiou G, Asmar R, Beilin L, Bilo G, et al. European Society of Hypertension position paper on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. J Hypertens. 2013;31(9):1731–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fagard RH, Cornelissen VA. Incidence of cardiovascular events in white-coat, masked and sustained hypertension versus true normotension: a meta-analysis. J Hypertens. 2007;25(11):2193–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mancia G, Bombelli M, Facchetti R, Madotto F, Quarti-Trevano F, Polo Friz H, et al. Long-term risk of sustained hypertension in white-coat or masked hypertension. Hypertension. 2009;54(2):226–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ugajin T, Hozawa A, Ohkubo T, Asayama K, Kikuya M, Obara T, et al. White-coat hypertension as a risk factor for the development of home hypertension: the Ohasama study. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165(13):1541–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Stergiou GS, Salgami EV, Tzamouranis DG, Roussias LG. Masked hypertension assessed by ambulatory blood pressure versus home blood pressure monitoring: is it the same phenomenon? Am J Hypertens. 2005;18(6):772–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pickering TG, Davidson K, Gerin W, Schwartz JE. Masked hypertension. Hypertension. 2002;40(6):795–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pierdomenico SD, Cuccurullo F. Prognostic value of white-coat and masked hypertension diagnosed by ambulatory monitoring in initially untreated subjects: an updated meta analysis. Am J Hypertens. 2011;24(1):52–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Franklin SS, O’Brien E, Thijs L, Asayama K, Staessen JA. Masked hypertension: a phenomenon of measurement. Hypertension. 2015;65(1):16–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fan HQ, Li Y, Thijs L, Hansen TW, Boggia J, Kikuya M, et al. Prognostic value of isolated nocturnal hypertension on ambulatory measurement in 8711 individuals from 10 populations. J Hypertens. 2010;28(10):2036–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hansen TW, Kikuya M, Thijs L, Bjorklund-Bodegard K, Kuznetsova T, Ohkubo T, et al. Prognostic superiority of daytime ambulatory over conventional blood pressure in four populations: a meta-analysis of 7030 individuals. J Hypertens. 2007;25(8):1554–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sega R, Facchetti R, Bombelli M, Cesana G, Corrao G, Grassi G, et al. Prognostic value of ambulatory and home blood pressures compared with office blood pressure in the general population: follow-up results from the Pressioni Arteriose Monitorate e Loro Associazioni (PAMELA) study. Circulation. 2005;111(14):1777–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Niiranen TJ, Maki J, Puukka P, Karanko H, Jula AM. Office, home, and ambulatory blood pressures as predictors of cardiovascular risk. Hypertension. 2014;64(2):281–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Clement DL, De Buyzere ML, De Bacquer DA, de Leeuw PW, Duprez DA, Fagard RH, et al. Prognostic value of ambulatory blood-pressure recordings in patients with treated hypertension. N Engl J Med. 2003;348(24):2407–15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Boggia J, Li Y, Thijs L, Hansen TW, Kikuya M, Bjorklund-Bodegard K, et al. Prognostic accuracy of day versus night ambulatory blood pressure: a cohort study. Lancet. 2007;370(9594):1219–29.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ben-Dov IZ, Kark JD, Ben-Ishay D, Mekler J, Ben-Arie L, Bursztyn M. Predictors of all-cause mortality in clinical ambulatory monitoring: unique aspects of blood pressure during sleep. Hypertension. 2007;49(6):1235–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kanbay M, Turgut F, Uyar ME, Akcay A, Covic A. Causes and mechanisms of nondipping hypertension. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2008;30(7):585–97.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Metoki H, Ohkubo T, Kikuya M, Asayama K, Obara T, Hashimoto J, et al. Prognostic significance for stroke of a morning pressor surge and a nocturnal blood pressure decline: the Ohasama study. Hypertension. 2006;47(2):149–54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ingelsson E, Bjorklund-Bodegard K, Lind L, Arnlov J, Sundstrom J. Diurnal blood pressure pattern and risk of congestive heart failure. JAMA. 2006;295(24):2859–66.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kario K. Prognosis in relation to blood pressure variability: pro side of the argument. Hypertension. 2015;65(6):1163–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Tai C, Sun Y, Dai N, Xu D, Chen W, Wang J, et al. Prognostic significance of visit-to-visit systolic blood pressure variability: a meta-analysis of 77,299 patients. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2015;17(2):107–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hoshide S, Kario K, Hoshide Y, Umeda Y, Hashimoto T, Kunii O, et al. Associations between nondipping of nocturnal blood pressure decrease and cardiovascular target organ damage in strictly selected community-dwelling normotensives. Am J Hypertens. 2003;16(6):434–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Conway KS, Forbang N, Beben T, Criqui MH, Ix JH, Rifkin DE. Relationship between 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure and cognitive function in community-living older adults: The UCSD Ambulatory Blood Pressure Study. Am J Hypertens. 2015.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Takeda N, Maemura K. Circadian clock and cardiovascular disease. J Cardiol. 2011;57(3):249–56.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Takeda N, Maemura K. Cardiovascular disease, chronopharmacotherapy, and the molecular clock. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2010;62(9–10):956–66.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hermida RC, Ayala DE, Mojon A, Fernandez JR. Influence of circadian time of hypertension treatment on cardiovascular risk: results of the MAPEC study. Chronobiol Int. 2010;27(8):1629–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Liu X, Huang W, Leo S, Li Y, Liu M, Yuan H. Evening -versus morning- dosing drug therapy for chronic kidney disease patients with hypertension: a systematic review. Kidney Blood Press Res. 2014;39(5):427–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kasiakogias A, Tsioufis C, Thomopoulos C, Andrikou I, Aragiannis D, Dimitriadis K, et al. Evening versus morning dosing of antihypertensive drugs in hypertensive patients with sleep apnoea: a cross-over study. J Hypertens. 2015;33(2):393–400.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Minutolo R, Borrelli S, Scigliano R, Bellizzi V, Chiodini P, Cianciaruso B, et al. Prevalence and clinical correlates of white coat hypertension in chronic kidney disease. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2007;22(8):2217–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Minutolo R, Agarwal R, Borrelli S, Chiodini P, Bellizzi V, Nappi F, et al. Prognostic role of ambulatory blood pressure measurement in patients with nondialysis chronic kidney disease. Arch Intern Med. 2011;171(12):1090–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Agarwal R. Blood pressure and mortality among hemodialysis patients. Hypertension. 2010;55(3):762–8.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Roberts MA, Pilmore HL, Tonkin AM, Garg AX, Pascoe EM, Badve SV, et al. Challenges in blood pressure measurement in patients treated with maintenance hemodialysis. Am J Kidney Dis. 2012;60(3):463–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Yarows SA, Khoury S, Sowers JR. Cost effectiveness of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in evaluation and treatment of essential hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 1994;7(5):464–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Pessanha P, Viana M, Ferreira P, Bertoquini S, Polonia J. Diagnostic value and cost-benefit analysis of 24 hours ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in primary care in Portugal. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2013;13:57.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Lovibond K, Jowett S, Barton P, Caulfield M, Heneghan C, Hobbs FD, et al. Cost-effectiveness of options for the diagnosis of high blood pressure in primary care: a modelling study. Lancet. 2011;378(9798):1219–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bloomfield GL, Blocher CR, Fakhry IF, Sica DA, Sugerman HJ. Elevated intra-abdominal pressure increases plasma renin activity and aldosterone levels. J Trauma. 1997;42(6):997–1004 discussion -5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Aust Fam Physician. 2011;40(11):877–80.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Campbell NR, Hemmelgarn BR. New recommendations for the use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in the diagnosis of hypertension. CMAJ. 2012;184(6):633–4.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Japanese Circulation Society Joint Working Group. Guidelines for the clinical use of 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) (JCS 2010): digest version. Circ J. 2012;76:508–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Agarwal R, Nissenson AR, Batlle D, Coyne DW, Trout JR, Warnock DG. Prevalence, treatment, and control of hypertension in chronic hemodialysis patients in the United States. Am J Med. 2003;115(4):291–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kaplan NM. Resistant hypertension. J Hypertens. 2005;23(8):1441–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Portaluppi F, Montanari L, Massari M, Di Chiara V, Capanna M. Loss of nocturnal decline of blood pressure in hypertension due to chronic renal failure. Am J Hypertens. 1991;4(1 Pt 1):20–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Mizuno M, Fukuda M, Miura T, Wakamatsu T, Naito T, Sato R, et al. Morning hypertension in chronic kidney disease is sustained type, but not surge type. Blood Press Monit. 2012;17(1):20–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Cohen DL, Huan Y, Townsend RR. Ambulatory blood pressure in chronic kidney disease. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2013;15(3):160–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Agarwal R. Blood pressure components and the risk for end-stage renal disease and death in chronic kidney disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol: CJASN. 2009;4(4):830–7.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Poulter NR, Prabhakaran D, Caulfield M. Hypertension. Lancet. 2015.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Japanese Society of Nephrology 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yalcin Solak
    • 1
  • Kazuomi Kario
    • 2
  • Adrian Covic
    • 3
  • Nathan Bertelsen
    • 4
  • Baris Afsar
    • 5
  • Abdullah Ozkok
    • 6
  • Andrzej Wiecek
    • 7
  • Mehmet Kanbay
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal MedicineSakarya University Training and Research HospitalSakaryaTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Cardiovascular MedicineJichi Medical University School of MedicineShimotsukeJapan
  3. 3.Nephrology Clinic, Dialysis and Renal Transplant Center‘C.I. PARHON’ University Hospital, ‘Grigore T. Popa’ University of MedicineIasiRomania
  4. 4.Division of Nephrology, Department of MedicineKoc University School of MedicineIstanbulTurkey
  5. 5.Division of Nephrology, Department of MedicineKonya Numune State HospitalKonyaTurkey
  6. 6.Division of Nephrology, Department of MedicineIstanbul Medeniyet University School of MedicineIstanbulTurkey
  7. 7.Department of Nephrology, Transplantation and Internal MedicineMedical University of SilesiaKatowicePoland

Personalised recommendations