Clinical and Experimental Nephrology

, Volume 19, Issue 4, pp 669–677 | Cite as

Different association of cigarette smoking with GFR estimated from serum creatinine and that from serum cystatin C in the general population

  • Yuichi YamadaEmail author
  • Yuka Noborisaka
  • Masao Ishizaki
  • Michiko Yamazaki
  • Ryumon Honda
  • Hitoshi Yokoyama
  • Tatsuyuki Kakuma
Original Article



Previous studies have shown that GFR estimated from serum creatinine (eGFRcr) is higher in smokers although the implications remain unclear. We aimed to clarify the associations of smoking with eGFRcys (GFR estimated from serum cystatin C) and eGFRcr, cys (the surmised most precise GFR estimate based on serum creatinine and cystatin C) in a working population.


Cross-sectional observation in 1,587 male workers aged 25–64 years. For eGFRcr, JEQcr proposed by the Japanese Society of Nephrology (JSN) and jEPIcr by the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiological Collaboration (CKD-EPI) modified for Japanese, and for eGFRcys, JEQcys proposed by JSN and EPIcys by CKD-EPI were calculated together with eGFRcr,cys of JEQaver (the average of JEQcr and JEQcys) and jEPIcr,cys by CKD-EPI modified for Japanese.


Mean JEQcys was 95.1 mL/min/1.73 m2 in contrast to 80.9 in JEQcr, with this difference considerable. Serum cystatin C was higher in smokers and obese subjects while serum creatinine was lower in smokers and slender subjects. JEQcys and EPIcys were lower in smokers while JEQcr and jEPIcr were higher in smokers adjusting for body mass index (BMI). eGFRcr,cys (JEQaver and jEPIcr,cys) did not differ between the never smokers and current smokers. eGFRcr,cys predicted by the equations composed of eGFRcr, BMI, and smoking habits showed a good accordance with calculated eGFRcr,cys.


Either eGFRcr, eGFRcys or both were not reliable indicators of renal function in workers who smoked. The possibly more precise estimate of eGFRcr,cys could be predicted by eGFRcr, BMI and smoking in such a generally healthy population.


Smoking Obesity eGFR Creatinine Cystatin C 


Conflict of interest

All the authors have declared no competing interest.


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Copyright information

© Japanese Society of Nephrology 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yuichi Yamada
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yuka Noborisaka
    • 1
  • Masao Ishizaki
    • 1
  • Michiko Yamazaki
    • 1
  • Ryumon Honda
    • 1
  • Hitoshi Yokoyama
    • 2
  • Tatsuyuki Kakuma
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Social and Environmental MedicineKanazawa Medical University School of MedicineUchinadaJapan
  2. 2.Department of NephrologyKanazawa Medical University School of MedicineUchinadaJapan
  3. 3.Biostatistic CenterKurume UniversityKurumeJapan

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