Annual incidence of persistent proteinuria in the general population from Ibaraki annual urinalysis study
- 185 Downloads
For a definitive diagnosis of chronic kidney disease, at least 2 consecutive positive results of proteinuria with an interval of >3 months are required. However, most previous reports were based on single-screening data.
Patients and methods
The subjects in this study were participants in an annual health examination held in Ibaraki, Japan, between 1993 and 2003. The follow-up duration with serial urinalysis for 3 years of patients who were negative for proteinuria in the initial year was 330,614 person-years in males and 687,381 person-years in females among 81,854 male and 155,256 female subjects. We evaluated the incidence and risk factor for the incidence of proteinuria and persistent proteinuria.
The annual incidence of proteinuria and persistent proteinuria was 1.31 and 0.33 % in males and 0.68 and 0.14 % in females. Among the subjects without hypertension and diabetes, the annual incidence was 0.81 and 0.16 % in males and 0.37 and 0.06 % in females, respectively. Risk analysis indicated that hypertension in males [hazard ratio (HR) 2.052] and females (2.477), diabetes in males (3.532) and females (3.534) and reduced renal function in males (3.097) and females (2.827) were significant positive risks for development of persistent proteinuria.
By annual urinalysis screening of the general population, 1 out of 303 male subjects and 1 out of 725 female subjects developed persistent proteinuria every year. Subjects with diabetes, hypertension and reduced renal function had a 2 or 3 times higher risk for the incidence of persistent proteinuria in both males and females.
KeywordsUrinalysis Chronic kidney disease Persistent proteinuria Risk factors
The authors would like to thank the staff of Ibaraki Health Service Association, especially Mr. Ryuji Yamashita and Dr. Iwao Yamaguchi. This study was supported in part by a Grant-in-Aid for Strategic Outcome Study project for chronic kidney disease and Research on the Positioning of Chronic Kidney Disease in Specific Health Check and Guidance in Japan from the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan.
Conflict of interest
- 8.Chandie Shaw PK, Baboe F, van Es LA, van der Vijver JC, van de Ree MA, de Jonge N, et al. South-Asian type 2 diabetic patients have higher incidence and faster progression of renal disease compared with Dutch-European diabetic patients. Diabetes Care. 2006;29:1383–5.Google Scholar
- 12.Annual data report of ESRD in Taiwan. Nephrology TSo. 2006.Google Scholar
- 19.1999 World Health Organization-International Society of Hypertension Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension. Guidelines Subcommittee. J Hypertens. 1999;17:151–83.Google Scholar
- 22.Wyatt RJ, Julian BA, Baehler RW, Stafford CC, McMorrow RG, Ferguson T, et al. Epidemiology of IgA nephropathy in central and eastern Kentucky for the period 1975 through 1994. Central Kentucky Region of the Southeastern United States IgA Nephropathy DATABANK Project. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1998;9:853–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 24.Maisonneuve P, Agodoa L, Gellert R, Stewart JH, Buccianti G, Lowenfels AB, et al. Distribution of primary renal diseases leading to end-stage renal failure in the United States, Europe, and Australia/New Zealand: results from an international comparative study. Am J Kidney Dis. 2000;35:157–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 27.Voyaki SM, Staessen JA, Thijs L, Wang JG, Efstratopoulos AD, Birkenhager WH, et al. Follow-up of renal function in treated and untreated older patients with isolated systolic hypertension. Systolic Hypertension in Europe (Syst-Eur) Trial Investigators. J Hypertens. 2001;19:511–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar