Development of lymphatic vasculature and morphological characterization in rat kidney
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The mechanisms and morphological characteristics of lymphatic vascular development in embryonic kidneys remain uncertain.
We examined the distribution and characteristics of lymphatic vessels in developing rat kidneys using immunostaining for podoplanin, prox-1, Ki-67, type IV collagen (basement membrane: BM), and α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA: pericytes or mural cells). We also examined the expression of VEGF-C.
At embryonic day 17 (E17), podoplanin-positive lymphatic vessels were observed mainly in the kidney hilus. At E20, lymphatic vessels extended further into the developing kidneys along the interlobar vasculature. In 1-day-old pups (P1) to P20, lymphatic vessels appeared around the arcuate arteries and veins of the kidneys, with some reaching the developing cortex via interlobular vessels. In 8-week-old adult rats, lymphatic vessels were extensively distributed around the blood vasculature from the renal hilus to cortex. Only lymphatic capillaries lacking continuous BM and αSMA-positive cells were present within adult kidneys, with none observed in renal medulla. VEGF-C was upregulated in the developing kidneys and expressed mainly in tubules. Importantly, the developing lymphatic vessels were characterized by endothelial cells immunopositive for podoplanin, prox-1, and Ki-67, with no surrounding BM or αSMA-positive cells.
During nephrogenesis, lymphatic vessels extend from the renal hilus into the renal cortex along the renal blood vasculature. Podoplanin, prox-1, Ki-67, type IV collagen, and αSMA immunostaining can detect lymphatic vessels during lymphangiogenesis.
KeywordsDevelopment Kidney Lymphangiogenesis Podoplanin Prox-1
This study was mainly performed by Ms. Maki Tanabe during her 3rd year to 6th year as a medical student at Nippon Medical school. Parts of this study were presented at the Kidney Week 2009 of the American Society of Nephrology (San Diego).
Conflict of interest
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