Clinical and Experimental Nephrology

, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp 248–257 | Cite as

Management of anemia in chronic kidney disease patients: baseline findings from Chronic Kidney Disease Japan Cohort Study

  • Tadao Akizawa
  • Hirofumi Makino
  • Seiichi Matsuo
  • Tsuyoshi Watanabe
  • Enyu Imai
  • Kosaku Nitta
  • Yasuo Ohashi
  • Akira Hishida
  • Chronic Kidney Disease Japan Cohort Study Group
Original Article



Anemia is a factor that affects the outcome of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, there are only a few reports on the management of anemia in Japanese patients with CKD who are not on dialysis.


We investigated the prevalence, related factors and management of anemia in CKD stage 3–5 patients in Japan based on the baseline data obtained from a prospective cohort study (Chronic Kidney Disease Japan Cohort). Anemia was defined as having a hemoglobin (Hb) level of <11 g/dL or receiving erythropoiesis stimulating agent (ESA) therapy.


The result indicated that 946 out of 2,930 patients had anemia. Of these 946 patients, 385 were receiving ESA treatment for anemia and had an Hb level of 10.28 ± 1.19 g/dL (mean ± SD). The percentage of these patients with an Hb level above the target of 11 g/dL proposed for treatment by the Japanese guidelines, and above the maintenance level of 10 g/dL approved for ESA therapy in Japan, was only 30.1 and 61.6%, respectively. In contrast, the percentage of patients receiving no ESA therapy was 67.6 and 55.7%, respectively, among those with an Hb level of <11 and <10 g/dL.


These data suggested that prevalence of anemia was high in Japanese patients with CKD stage 3–5, that the percentage of patients receiving ESA was low among those who required ESA, and that a large number of patients receiving ESA failed to maintain the recommended level of Hb.


CKD Erythropoiesis stimulating agent (ESA) Hemoglobin (Hb) Anemia 



This study was conducted by principal investigators at the following medical centers: Sendai Social Insurance Hospital (Miyagi), Toride Kyodo Hospital (Ibaraki), Jichi Medical University (Tochigi), Tokyo Women’s Medical University Hospital (Tokyo), St. Luke’s International Hospital (Tokyo), Showa University Hospital (Tokyo), Showa University Yokohama Northern Hospital (Kanagawa), Showa University Fujigaoka Hospital (Kanagawa), Gifu Prefectural General Medical Center (Gifu), Kasugai Municipal Hospital (Aichi), Tosei General Hospital (Aichi), Osaka University Hospital (Osaka), Osaka General Medical Center (Osaka), Osaka City General Hospital (Osaka), Kurashiki Central Hospital (Okayama), Fukuoka Red Cross Hospital (Fukuoka), Iizuka Hospital (Fukuoka).


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Copyright information

© Japanese Society of Nephrology 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tadao Akizawa
    • 1
  • Hirofumi Makino
    • 2
  • Seiichi Matsuo
    • 3
  • Tsuyoshi Watanabe
    • 4
  • Enyu Imai
    • 3
  • Kosaku Nitta
    • 5
  • Yasuo Ohashi
    • 6
  • Akira Hishida
    • 7
  • Chronic Kidney Disease Japan Cohort Study Group
  1. 1.Division of Nephrology, Department of MedicineShowa University School of MedicineTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Department of Medicine and Clinical ScienceOkayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical SciencesOkayamaJapan
  3. 3.Department of NephrologyNagoya University Graduate School of MedicineNagoyaJapan
  4. 4.The Third Department of Internal MedicineFukushima Medical CollegeFukushimaJapan
  5. 5.Department of Medicine, Kidney CenterTokyo Women’s Medical UniversityTokyoJapan
  6. 6.Department of Biostatistics, School of Public HealthThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan
  7. 7.First Department of MedicineHamamatsu University School of MedicineShizuokaJapan

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