High-calorie diet with moderate protein restriction prevents cachexia and ameliorates oxidative stress, inflammation and proteinuria in experimental chronic kidney disease
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In earlier studies we found that a high-fat, high-energy diet (HFED) attenuates proteinuria, azotemia and lipid accumulation in the remnant kidney of rats subjected to 5/6 nephrectomy. This study was conducted to explore the mechanism of the salutary effect of HFED in association with moderate protein restriction in this model.
The 5/6 nephrectomized male rats were randomized to receive regular rat chow (CRF group, n = 6) or HFED diet (CRF + HFED, n = 7) for 12 weeks. Sham-operated rats served as controls (n = 6).
The CRF group exhibited azotemia, hypertension, proteinuria, diminished body weight, oxidative stress, glomerulosclerosis, tubulo-interstitial inflammation and upregulation of pro-oxidant [NAD(P)H oxidase], pro-inflammatory (NF-κB activation, increased MCP-1, lipoxygenase, ICAM-1, VCAM-1), pro-fibrotic (TGF-β, CTGF) and pro-apoptotic pathways (Bax, caspase-3) in the remnant kidney. Consumption of the HFED resulted in a 66% increment in lipid intake, 8% increment in carbohydrate intake and a 24% reduction in protein intake. The CRF + HFED group gained weight normally, had increments in leptin and adiponectin levels, and despite increments in plasma cholesterol and fatty acids, showed significant attenuation of oxidative stress, proteinuria and inflammation, and partial reversal of the remnant kidney upregulation of pro-oxidant, pro-inflammatory, pro-fibrotic and pro-apoptotic pathways.
Consumption of high-energy diet in association with mild protein restriction results in suppression of upregulated pathways that drive progression of renal injury in the remnant kidney model. These findings may have relevance in the management of chronic kidney disease in humans.
KeywordsDyslipidemia Malnutrition High-calorie diet Chronic renal disease progression Inflammation Uremic cachexia
This study was in part supported by the NIH Division of Research Resources Grant 5 U54 RR-0119234 and by FONACYT Grant 2005000283.
Conflict of interest
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