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Clinical and Experimental Nephrology

, Volume 14, Issue 6, pp 558–570 | Cite as

Chronic Kidney Disease Japan Cohort study: baseline characteristics and factors associated with causative diseases and renal function

  • Enyu ImaiEmail author
  • Seiichi Matsuo
  • Hirofumi Makino
  • Tsuyoshi Watanabe
  • Tadao Akizawa
  • Kosaku Nitta
  • Satoshi Iimuro
  • Yasuo Ohashi
  • Akira Hishida
Original Article

Abstract

Background

Prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is estimated to be 13.3 million in Japan, but patient characteristics during the predialysis period (CKD stages 3–5) are not well studied.

Methods

We established the Chronic Kidney Disease Japan Cohort (CKD-JAC) to study the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and all-cause mortality in predialysis patients treated by nephrologists for 4 years. The inclusion criteria were (1) Japanese and Asian patients living in Japan, (2) age 20–75 years, and (3) estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 10–59 ml/min/1.73 m2.

Results

We analyzed 2977 participants for baseline characteristics. Mean eGFR was 28.6 ± 11.8 ml/min/1.73 m2, and mean albuminuria was 976 ± 1340 mg/g Cr. In our study, 91.9% of participants had hypertension, but it was well controlled (131/76 mmHg). Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) were used by most participants. Less than 15% of participants had history of ischemic heart disease, and 11.5% had history of stroke. Heart failure and arteriosclerosis obliterans were present in 3.9% and 3.6% of patients, respectively. Indicators of arteriosclerosis, higher pulse wave velocity (PWV), and high pulse pressure were associated with diabetes and particularly with diabetic nephropathy. Patients included due to glomerulonephritis seemed to be at low risk for atherosclerosis and also to show lower levels of hypertension.

Conclusions

The difference between causative diseases is associated with different comorbidity and level of arteriosclerosis. Future analysis of the cohort will clarify whether incidence of ESRD and CVD differs among causative diseases.

Keywords

CKD Diabetes Chronic glomerulonephritis Hypertension PWV Pulse pressure 

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Copyright information

© Japanese Society of Nephrology 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Enyu Imai
    • 1
    Email author
  • Seiichi Matsuo
    • 1
  • Hirofumi Makino
    • 2
  • Tsuyoshi Watanabe
    • 3
  • Tadao Akizawa
    • 4
  • Kosaku Nitta
    • 5
  • Satoshi Iimuro
    • 6
  • Yasuo Ohashi
    • 6
  • Akira Hishida
    • 7
  1. 1.Department of NephrologyNagoya University Graduate School of MedicineNagoyaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Medicine and Clinical ScienceOkayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical SciencesOkayamaJapan
  3. 3.The Third Department of Internal MedicineFukushima Medical CollegeFukushimaJapan
  4. 4.Department of NephrologyShowa UniversityTokyoJapan
  5. 5.Department of MedicineKidney Center, Tokyo Women’s Medical UniversityTokyoJapan
  6. 6.Department of BiostatisticsSchool of Public Health, The University of TokyoTokyoJapan
  7. 7.First Department of MedicineHamamatsu University School of MedicineHamamatsuJapan

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