Clinical and Experimental Nephrology

, Volume 13, Issue 6, pp 621–630 | Cite as

Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in the Japanese general population

  • Enyu ImaiEmail author
  • Masaru Horio
  • Tsuyoshi Watanabe
  • Kunitoshi Iseki
  • Kunihiro Yamagata
  • Shigeko Hara
  • Nobuyuki Ura
  • Yutaka Kiyohara
  • Toshiki Moriyama
  • Yasuhiro Ando
  • Shoichi Fujimoto
  • Tsuneo Konta
  • Hitoshi Yokoyama
  • Hirofumi Makino
  • Akira Hishida
  • Seiichi Matsuo
Original article



We previously estimated the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 3–5 at 19.1 million based on data from the Japanese annual health check program for 2000–2004 using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation multiplied by the coefficient 0.881 for the Japanese population. However, this equation underestimates the GFR, particularly for glomerular filtration rates (GFRs) of over 60 ml/min/1.73 m2. We did not classify the participants as CKD stages 1 and 2 because we did not obtain proteinuria data for all of the participants. We re-estimated the prevalence of CKD by measuring proteinuria using a dipstick test and by calculating the GFR using a new equation that estimates GFR based on data from the Japanese annual health check program in 2005.


Data were obtained for 574,024 (male 240,594, female 333,430) participants over 20 years old taken from the general adult population, who were from 11 different prefectures in Japan (Hokkaido, Yamagata, Fukushima, Tochigi, Ibaraki, Tokyo, Kanazawa, Osaka, Fukuoka, Miyazaki and Okinawa) and took part in the annual health check program in 2005. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of each participant was computed from the serum creatinine value using a new equation: GFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) = 194 × Age−0.287 × S-Cr−1.094 (if female × 0.739). The CKD population nationwide was calculated using census data from 2005. We also recalculated the prevalence of CKD in Japan assuming that the age composition of the population was same as that in the USA.


The prevalence of CKD stages 1, 2, 3, and 4 + 5 were 0.6, 1.7, 10.4 and 0.2% in the study population, which resulted in predictions of 0.6, 1.7, 10.7 and 0.2 million patients, respectively, nationwide. The prevalence of low GFR was significantly higher in the hypertensive and proteinuric populations than it was in the populations without proteinuria or hypertension. The prevalence rate of CKD in Japan was similar to that in the USA when the Japanese general population was age adjusted to the US 2005 population estimate.


About 13% of the Japanese adult population—approximately 13.3 million people—were predicted to have CKD in 2005.


Chronic kidney disease Japanese eGFR Serum creatinine 


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Copyright information

© Japanese Society of Nephrology 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Enyu Imai
    • 1
    Email author
  • Masaru Horio
    • 2
  • Tsuyoshi Watanabe
    • 3
  • Kunitoshi Iseki
    • 4
  • Kunihiro Yamagata
    • 5
  • Shigeko Hara
    • 6
  • Nobuyuki Ura
    • 7
  • Yutaka Kiyohara
    • 8
  • Toshiki Moriyama
    • 9
  • Yasuhiro Ando
    • 10
  • Shoichi Fujimoto
    • 11
  • Tsuneo Konta
    • 12
  • Hitoshi Yokoyama
    • 13
  • Hirofumi Makino
    • 14
  • Akira Hishida
    • 15
  • Seiichi Matsuo
    • 16
  1. 1.Department of NephrologyOsaka University Graduate School of MedicineSuitaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Functional Diagnostic ScienceOsaka University Graduate School of MedicineOsakaJapan
  3. 3.Third Department of MedicineFukushima Medical UniversityFukushimaJapan
  4. 4.Dialysis UnitUniversity Hospital of The RyukyusNishiharaJapan
  5. 5.Department of Nephrology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human SciencesUniversity of TsukubaIbarakiJapan
  6. 6.Health Medical CenterToranomon HospitalTokyoJapan
  7. 7.Department of General MedicineTeine Keijinkai HospitalSapporoJapan
  8. 8.Department of Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medical SciencesKyushu UniversityFukuokaJapan
  9. 9.Healthcare CenterOsaka UniversityOsakaJapan
  10. 10.Department of NephrologyJichi Medical SchoolTochigiJapan
  11. 11.First Department of MedicineMiyazaki UniversityMiyazakiJapan
  12. 12.First Department of MedicineYamagata UniversityYamagataJapan
  13. 13.Division of NephrologyKanazwa Medical UniversityIshikawaJapan
  14. 14.Department of Nephrology, Diabetes and RheumatologyOkayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical SciencesOkayamaJapan
  15. 15.First Department of MedicineHamamatsu University School of MedicineShizuokaJapan
  16. 16.Department of NephrologyNagoya University Graduate School of MedicineNagoyaJapan

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