Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in the Japanese general population
- 1.9k Downloads
We previously estimated the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 3–5 at 19.1 million based on data from the Japanese annual health check program for 2000–2004 using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation multiplied by the coefficient 0.881 for the Japanese population. However, this equation underestimates the GFR, particularly for glomerular filtration rates (GFRs) of over 60 ml/min/1.73 m2. We did not classify the participants as CKD stages 1 and 2 because we did not obtain proteinuria data for all of the participants. We re-estimated the prevalence of CKD by measuring proteinuria using a dipstick test and by calculating the GFR using a new equation that estimates GFR based on data from the Japanese annual health check program in 2005.
Data were obtained for 574,024 (male 240,594, female 333,430) participants over 20 years old taken from the general adult population, who were from 11 different prefectures in Japan (Hokkaido, Yamagata, Fukushima, Tochigi, Ibaraki, Tokyo, Kanazawa, Osaka, Fukuoka, Miyazaki and Okinawa) and took part in the annual health check program in 2005. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of each participant was computed from the serum creatinine value using a new equation: GFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) = 194 × Age−0.287 × S-Cr−1.094 (if female × 0.739). The CKD population nationwide was calculated using census data from 2005. We also recalculated the prevalence of CKD in Japan assuming that the age composition of the population was same as that in the USA.
The prevalence of CKD stages 1, 2, 3, and 4 + 5 were 0.6, 1.7, 10.4 and 0.2% in the study population, which resulted in predictions of 0.6, 1.7, 10.7 and 0.2 million patients, respectively, nationwide. The prevalence of low GFR was significantly higher in the hypertensive and proteinuric populations than it was in the populations without proteinuria or hypertension. The prevalence rate of CKD in Japan was similar to that in the USA when the Japanese general population was age adjusted to the US 2005 population estimate.
About 13% of the Japanese adult population—approximately 13.3 million people—were predicted to have CKD in 2005.
KeywordsChronic kidney disease Japanese eGFR Serum creatinine
- 1.Japanese Society of Dialysis Therapy. An overview of regular dialysis treatment in Japan as of Dec 31, 2007. 2008. https://doi.org/docs.jsdt.or.jp/overview/. Accessed 1 Dec 2008.
- 2.Sarnak MJ, Levey AS, Schoolwerth AC, Coresh J, Culleton B, Hamm LL, et al. Kidney disease as a risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease: a statement from the American Heart Association Councils on Kidney in Cardiovascular Disease, High Blood Pressure Research, Clinical Cardiology, and Epidemiology and Prevention. Circulation. 2003;108:2154–69.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 7.Matsuo S, Imai E, Horio M, Yasuda Y, Tomita K, Nitta K, Yamagata K, Tomino Y, Yokoyama H, Hishida A, on behalf of the collaborators developing the Japanese equation for estimated GFR. Revised equations for estimated GFR from serum creatinine in Japan. Am J Kidney Dis. 2009;53:982–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 8.Bureau of the Census, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. https://doi.org/www.stat.go.jp/data/jinsui/index.htm. Accessed 10 Jan 2009.
- 10.Population Projections Branch, U.S. Census Bureau Year of Projection (2000–2050). https://doi.org/www.census.gov/population/www/projections/usinterimproj/. Accessed 10 Jan 2009.