Hemolytic anemia after ABO nonidentical living donor kidney transplantation
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ABO compatible non-identical kidney transplants are used frequently. Acquired hemolytic anemia has been reported after ABO mismatched transplantation. Patients of A, B or AB blood groups may receive organs from ABO-compatible, but non-identical donors, mostly from O blood group donors. It may also occur in patients of the AB blood group who receive a kidney from a donor of the A or B blood groups.
Patients and methods
ABO non-identical living donor kidney transplantation was done in 214 cases. All studied patients received kidneys from one haplotype HLA mismatched living donors and had pretransplant non-specific blood transfusions. There were 164 males and 50 females with a mean age of 30 years. Ten patients with cyclosporine (CsA)-based therapy developed hemolysis. CsA was stopped in patients maintained on triple immunosuppression (pred, CsA, AZA) and shifted to azathioprine in patients maintained on pred CsA therapy. In all patients pretransplant antibody screen, direct antiglobulin test (DAT) and cytotoxic cross match were all negative.
The prognosis was excellent in nine patients, and one died from severe hemolysis. Hemolytic anemia was more frequent among blood group A recipients (60% of our cases) and more severe among recipient blood group B. Six patients received antigen-negative packed RBCs.
Univariate analysis demonstrated significant impact for recipient age, donor sex, number of pretransplant blood transfusions, primary immunosuppression, time to onset of diuresis, recipient and donor blood groups. Multivariate analysis restricted the significance to blood group of donor and recipient, time to onset of diuresis and primary immunosuppression.
Post transplant hemolysis is infrequent after renal transplantation; however, it may occur with compatible, non-identical ABO blood group donors. Blood group of donor and recipient, time to onset of diuresis and primary immunosuppression (mainly CsA) were significant risk factors in hemolytic anemia in patients after ABO non-identical living donor kidney transplantation. The condition is usually mild and self limited, and change of immunosuppression (stop CsA) can treat the condition.
KeywordsKidney transplantation ABO non-identical Hemolysis