Dual blockade of the rennin–angiotensin system versus maximal recommended dose of angiotensin II receptor blockade in chronic glomerulonephritis
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Proteinuria and hypertension are predictors of poor renal outcome in chronic glomerulonephritis (CGN). At the same level of blood pressure (BP) control, we evaluated which is superior, dual blockade of the rennin–angiotensin system (RAS) with both angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and angiotensin II type 1 (AT-1) receptor blockade (ARB) or single blockade of ARB to reduce proteinuria and to preserve renal function in patients with CGN.
In this prospective, parallel, open study of 86 patients with CGN, we compared the effects on proteinuria and renal functions of 36 months with comparable blood pressure (BP) control achieved by candesartan cilexetil (candesartan, 4–12 mg/day) or benazepril hydrochrolide (benazepril, 2.5–10 mg/day) with candesartan (4 mg/day). Aiming at BP 125/75 mmHg or less, the dose of candesartan (single blockade) or benazepril (dual blockade) was increased.
Dual blockade decreased proteinuria more than single blockade with ARB (−42.3 vs. −60.5%, P < 0.01). Renal plasma flow (RPF) and glomerular filtration fraction (GFR) did not change significantly in either group. The filtration fraction (FF) decreased dual blockade more than single blockade (−1.7 vs. −19.0%, P < 0.05). Decreased FF was associated with the reduction of proteinuria (P < 0.05). Six percent of patients with dual blockade were not able to continue the study because of a dry cough.
Long-term dual blockade decreased proteinuria more than single blockade with ARB. Although ARB and ACEI have a glomerular size-selective function for proteinuria, a greater antiproteinuric effect may depend on renal hemodynamics, especially FF. Increased levels of bradykinin after ACEI can decrease FF and ameliorate proteinuria. Dry cough is a significant adverse effect of ACE inhibitor.
KeywordsCandesartan Benazepril Dual blockade Chronic glomerulonephritis Proteinuria Renal function
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