Helgoland Marine Research

, Volume 58, Issue 4, pp 243–251 | Cite as

A revised checklist of planktonic diatoms and dinoflagellates from Helgoland (North Sea, German Bight)

Original Article

Abstract

A checklist based on net samples taken twice weekly from 2001 until May 2003 is presented. Identification is based on observations under direct light microscopy and after taking some organisms in culture. The checklist includes 227 taxa observed at the Helgoland Reede sampling station. One hundred and thirty-two species of diatoms from 53 genera and 95 species of dinoflagellates from 35 genera have been recorded from net samples and cultures. Thirty-five diatom and 28 dinoflagellate taxa were documented in the Helgoland phytoplankton for the first time. The list does not claim to be complete, but provides an updated list of the taxa found at Helgoland and, for convenience, also includes data published for different adjacent areas.

Keywords

Diatoms Dinoflagellates Species list Helgoland Reede 

Introduction

Phytoplankton species composition and physico-chemical parameters have been recorded in the framework of a time series at Helgoland since 1962 (Hagmeier et al. 2004; Van Beusekom et al. 2004; Wiltshire and Dürselen 2004; Wiltshire et al. 2004). The Helgoland Reede station is sampled daily on weekdays. Water-bottle samples were fixed and phytoplankton taxa counted mainly for the estimation of the carbon content (quantification for the determination of biomass).

Since the species survey by Drebes from 1966 to 1971 (Drebes 1974), there has been no continuous species composition record from net samples. For that reason there was no actual data set covering microphytoplankton species diversity. This knowledge is not only important for getting an idea about the percentage of species diversity coverage that is recorded in the Helgoland timeseries, but also because there are continuous species composition records for the Wadden Sea phytoplankton at Sylt, Germany. The data presented here are the first results of an intensive taxonomic phytoplankton reinvestigation. They could be used as a basis for phytoplankton count quality control and for the start of a continuous detailed species recording in the framework of the Helgoland time series. Since the publication of the 1976 list (Drebes and Elbrächter 1976), nomenclatural changes have been sufficiently numerous to warrant the present list, incorporating additions, synonyms and corrections. Only those species that have been personally observed by the author and/or by Drebes (Drebes 1974; Drebes and Elbrächter 1976) are listed. It is an addition to the checklist of benthic species found in the vicinity of the island of Helgoland (Harms 1993).

Methods

Net samples from the surface water of the Helgoland Reede station (54°11.30′N 7°54.00′E) were collected twice a week from 2001 until May 2003 for qualitative species identification (in addition to the routine water-bottle samples for biomass determination). Nets of different mesh size, 20 µm and 80 µm, were used. The samples were brought to the laboratory and living organisms in small Petri dishes were identified using an inverted light microscope equipped with seawater-immersion objectives for about half a day. All species observed and identified were listed. Additionally, diatom cells were isolated and cultured and some samples were fixed with Lugol’s solution, for further investigations with a scanning electron microscope. For frustule preparation, diatom cultures were boiled in nitric acid and washed 10 times with distilled water.

The species are listed alphabetically within each class. Some synonyms, previously in common use, are given behind the species names for an easier comparison between the findings presented here and older publications and the cited lists.

Results

Table 1 gives a list of the marine phytoplankton diatoms and dinoflagellates found in Helgoland and other North Sea areas
Table 1

Checklist of marine phytoplankton, diatoms and dinoflagellates from Helgoland and other North Sea areas. 1 Hoppenrath, present study; 2 Drebes (1974); 3 Drebes and Elbrächter (1976); 4 Parke and Dixon (1976; coasts of Britain and Ireland and adjacent waters); 5 Hendey (1974; British marine diatoms); 6 Hartley (1986; marine diatoms of the British Isles and adjoining coastal waters); 7 Heimdal et al. (1973; Oslofjord, Norway); 8 Kuylenstierna and Karlson (2000; Skagerrak and Kattegat, Sweden); 9 Hansen and Larsen (1992; Kattegat, Denmark); 10 Leewis (1985; Dutch coast); 11 Pankow (1990; Baltic Sea); 12 Hällfors (Baltic Sea); t potentially toxic species

Species

Listed in:

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

Bacillariophyceae

Achnanthes longipes Agardh

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Actinocyclus curvatulus Janisch (syn. Coscinodiscus curvatulus)

+

?

+

Actinocyclus octonarius Ehrenberg (syn. Actinocyclus ehrenbergii)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Actinoptychus senarius (Ehrenberg) Ehrenberg (syn. Actinoptychus undulatus)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Actinoptychus splendens (Shadbbolt) Ralfs

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Asterionellopsis glacialis (Castracane) Round (syn. Asterionella glacialis, Asterionella japonica)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Asteroplanus karianus (Grunow) Crawford (syn. Asterionella karianus)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Aulacodiscus argus (Ehrenberg) Schmidt

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Bacillaria paxillifer (O.F. Müller) Hendey (syn. Bacillaria paradoxa)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Bacteriastrum hyalinum Lauder

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Bellerochea malleus (Brightwell) van Heurck (syn. Triceratium malleus)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Biddulphia alternans (Bailey) van Heurck (syn. Triceratium alternans)

+

+

+

+

+

+

Brockmanniella brockmannii (Hustedt) Hasle et al. (syn. Plagiogramma brockmannii)

+

+

+

+

+

+

Campylosira cymbelliformis Van Heurck

+

+

Calyptrella robusta (Norman) Hernández-Becerril et Meave (syn. Rhizosolenia robusta)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Catenula adhaerens (Mereschkowsky) Mereschkowsky

+

+

+

+

+

Cerataulina pelagica (Cleve) Hendey (syn. Cerataulina bergonii)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Cerataulus radiatus (Roper) Ross (syn. Cerataulus smithii)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Chaetoceros affinis Lauder

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Chaetoceros borealis Bailey

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Chaetoceros compressus Lauder a

cf+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Chaetoceros convolutus Castracane

+

+

+

+

+

+

Chaetoceros coronatus Gran

+

+

+

+

+

+

Chaetoceros costatus Gran

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Chaetoceros crinitus Schütt

cf+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Chaetoceros curvisetus Cleve

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Chaetoceros danicus Cleve

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Chaetoceros debilis Cleve

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Chaetoceros decipiens Cleve

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Chaetoceros densus (Cleve) Cleve

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Chaetoceros diadema (Ehrenberg) Gran (syn. Chaetoceros subsecundus)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Chaetoceros didymus Ehrenberg

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Chaetoceros eibenii Grunow

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Chaetoceros externus Gran

+

+

+

+

+

Chaetoceros lauderi Ralfs

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Chaetoceros protuberans Lauder

+

+

+

+

Chaetoceros radicans Schütt

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Chaetoceros similis Cleve

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Chaetoceros simplex Ostenfeld

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Chaetoceros socialis Lauder

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Chaetoceros subtilis Cleve

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Chaetoceros teres Cleve

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Chaetoceros tortissimus Gran

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Chaetoceros willei Gran b

+

+

+

+

Corethron hystrix Hensen

+

+

+

+

cf+

+

Coscinodiscus commutatus Grunow (today: Coscinodiscus centralis Ehrenberg?) c

+

+

+

?

?

?

?

+

+

Coscinodiscus concinnus Smith

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Coscinodiscus granii Gough

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Coscinodiscus pavillardii Forti d

cf+

+

+

?

Coscinodiscus radiatus Ehrenberg

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Coscinodiscus stellaris Roper

+

+

+

+

+

Coscinodiscus wailesii Gran et Angst e

+

+

+

+

Cylindrotheca closterium (Ehrenberg) Reimann et Lewin (syn. Nitzschia closterium)

+

+

+

+

?

+

+

Delphineis surirella (Ehrenberg) Andrews (syn. Rhaphoneis surirella)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Detonula confervacea (Cleve) Gran

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Detonula pumila (Castracane) Schütt (syn. Schroederella pumila, Schroederella schroederi)

+

+

+

?

+

+

+

+

Ditylum brightwellii (West) Grunow

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Eucampia zodiacus Ehrenberg

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Eunotogramma dubium Hustedt

+

Fragilaria islandica Grunow

+

?+

+

+

+

Fragilaria oblonga Drebes et Schulz

+

Grammatophora marina (Lyngbye) Kützing

cf+

+

+

+

+

Guinardia delicatula (Cleve) Hasle (syn. Rhizosolenia delicatula)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Guinardia flaccida (Castracane) Peragallo

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Guinardia striata (Stolterfoth) Hasle (syn. Rhizosolenia stolterfothii)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Helicothe catamesis (Shrubsole) Ricard (syn. Streptothe catamesis)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Lauderia annulata Cleve (syn. Lauderia borealis)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Leptocylindrus danicus Cleve

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Leptocylindrus minimus Gran

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Lithodesmium undulatum Ehrenberg

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Melosira moniliformis (O.F. Müller) Agardh (syn. Melosira borreri)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Melosira nummuloides (Dillwyn) Agardh

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Minidiscus trioculatus (Taylor) Hasle (syn. Coscinodiscus trioculatus)

cf+

+

+

Nitzschia longissima (Kützing) Grunow

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Odontella aurita (Lyngbye) Agardh (syn. Biddulphia aurita)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Odontella aurita var. minima (Grunow) Drebes

+

+

Odontella granulata (Roper) Ross (syn. Biddulphia granulata)

+

+

+

+

+

+

Odontella mobiliensis (Bailey) Grunow (syn. Biddulphia mobiliensis)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Odontella obtusa Kützing

cf+

+

+

+

?

Odontella regia (Schultze) Simonsen (syn. Biddulphia regia)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Odontella rhombus (Ehrenberg) Kützing (syn. Biddulphia rhombus)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Odontella rhombus f. trigona (van Heurck) Ross

+

+

+

+

+

Odontella sinensis (Greville) Grunow (syn. Biddulphia sinensis) f

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Paralia marina (Smith) Heiberg (syn. Paralia sulcata)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Plagiogrammopsis vanheurckii (Grunow) Hasle et al. (syn. Plagiogramma vanheurckii)

+

+

+

+

+

Podosira stelliger (Bailey) Mann (syn. Hyalodiscus stelliger)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Porosira glacialis (Grunow) Jörgensen (syn. Lauderia glacialis)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Proboscia alata (Brightwell) Sundström (syn. Rhizosolenia alata)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Proboscia indica (Peragallo) Drebes (syn. Rhizosolenia indica) g

+

+

+

?

Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima (Cleve) Heiden (syn. Nitzschia delicatissima) t

cf+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Pseudo-nitzschia fraudulenta Cleve t

+

+

+

Pseudo-nitzschia pungens Grunow [=Nitzschia “seriata” in Drebes (1974)] t

+

+

+

+

+

?

+

+

+

Pseudopodosira westii (Smith) Sheshukova-Poretzkaya (syn. Melosira westii)

+

+

+

+

Rhaphoneis amphiceros (Ehrenberg) Ehrenberg

+

+

+

+

+

+

Rhizosolenia hebetata f. semispina (Hensen) Gran

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Rhizosolenia imbricata Brightwell (syn. Rhizosolenia shrubsolei)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Rhizosolenia pungens Cleve-Euler

+

+

+

+

+

+

Rhizosolenia setigera Brightwell

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Rhizosolenia cf similoides Cleve-Euler

+

Rhizosolenia styliformis Brightwell

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Roperiates selata (Roper) Grunow

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Skeletonema costatum (Greville) Cleve

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Stauropsis membranacea (Cleve) Meunier (syn. Stauroneis membranacea)

+

+

+

+

+

+

Stephanopyxis turris (Greville et Arnott) Ralfs

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Subsilicea fragilarioides Stosch et Reimann

+

Thalassionema frauenfeldii (Grunow) Hallegraeff (syn. Thalassiothrix frauenfeldii)

+

+

+

+

+

+

Thalassionema nitzschioides (Grunow) Hustedt

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Thalassiosira aestivalis Gran et Angst

+

Thalassiosira cf allenii Takano

+

Thalassiosira angulata (Gregory) Hasle

+

+

+

+

Thalassiosira anguste-lineata (Schmidt) Fryxell et Hasle (syn. Coscinodiscus anguste-lineata,Thalassiosira polychorda)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Thalassiosira concaviuscula Makarova

+

Thalassiosira curviseriata Takano h

cf+

+

Thalassiosira decipiens (Grunow) Jörgensen

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Thalassiosira delicatula Ostenfeld

+

+

Thalassiosira diporocyclus Hasle

+

+

+

+

+

+

Thalassiosira eccentrica (Ehrenberg) Cleve (syn. Coscinodiscus eccentricus)

+

+

+

+

Thalassiosira hendeyi Hasle et Fryxell

+

Thalassiosira cf kuschirensis Takano

+

Thalassiosira lundiana Fryxell

+

Thalassiosira mala Takano

+

+

Thalassiosira minima Gaarder

+

?

+

+

cf+

Thalassiosira monoporocyclus Hasle

+

Thalassiosira nordenskioeldii Cleve

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Thalassiosira oceanica Hasle

+

+

+

Thalassiosira proschkinae Makarova

+

+

+

Thalassiosira punctigera (Castracane) Hasle (syn. Thalassiosira angstii, Thalassiosira japonica) i

+

+

+

Thalassiosira rotula Meunier

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Thalassiosira subtilis (Ostenfeld) Gran

+

+

+

+

+

+

Thalassiosira tealata Takano j

+

Thalassiosira tenera Proshkina-Lavrenko

+

+

+

Triceratium favus Ehrenberg

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Dinophyceae

Actiniscus pentasterias (Ehrenberg) Ehrenberg (syn. Gymnaster pentasterias)

+

+

+

+

+

+

Akashiwo sanguinea (Hirasaki) Hansen et Moestrup (syn. Gymnodinium sanguineum, Gymnodinium splendens)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Amoebophrya ceratii (Koeppen) Cachon

+

+

+

+

Amylax triacantha (Jörgensen) Sournia (syn. Gonyaulax triacantha)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Ceratium arietinum Cleve (=Ceratium bucephalum) k

+

+

?

+

+

+

Ceratium furca (Ehrenberg) Claparède et Lachmann

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Ceratium fusus (Ehrenberg) Dujardin

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Ceratium horridum (Cleve) Gran (syn. Ceratium intermedium)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Ceratium lineatum (Ehrenberg) Cleve

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Ceratium longipes (Bailey) Gran

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Ceratium macroceros (Ehrenberg) Vanhöffen

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Ceratium tripos (Müller) Nitzsch

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Dinophysis acuminata Claparède et Lachmann t

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Dinophysis acuta Ehrenberg t

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Dinophysis dens Pavillard

cf+

+

+

+

+

Dinophysis norvegica Claparède et Lachmann t

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Dinophysis rotundata Claparède et Lachmann (syn. Phalacroma rotundatum)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Diplopelta bomba Stein ex Jörgensen (syn. Dissodinium asymmetricum, Diplopsalisa symmetrica) l

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Diplopsalis lenticula Bergh

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Dissodinium pseudocalani (Gönnert) Drebes ex Elbrächter et Drebes

+

+

+

+

Dissodinium pseudolunula Swift ex Elbrächter et Drebes

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

“Exuviaella marina” Cienkowski

+

+

Fragilidium subglobosum (v. Stosch) Balech (syn. Helgolandinium subgobosum)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Gonyaulax diegensis Kofoid

+

+

Gonyaulax digitale (Pouchet) Kofoid

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Gonyaulax spinifera (Claparède et Lachmann) Diesing

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Gonyaulax verior Sournia

+

+

+

+

+

+

Gymnodinium chlorophorum Elbrächter et Schnepf (syn. Lepidodinium viride) m

+

+

Gymnodinium cf endofasciculum Campell

+

+

+

Gymnodinium gracile Bergh (syn. Gymnodinium abbreviatum,Gymnodinium lohmannii)

cf+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Gymnodinium lebourae Pavillard

+

+

+

+

+

+

Gymnodinium striatissimum Hulburt (syn. Gymnodinium heterostriatum*)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Gyrodinium britannicum Kofoidet Swezy

+

+

+

+

+

+

Gyrodinium calyptoglyphe Lebour (syn. Sclerodinium calyptoglyphe)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Gyrodinium lacryma (Meunier) Kofoid et Swezy n

?+

?+

+

+

cf+

Gyrodinium prunus (Wulff) Lebour o

?+

+

+

+

+

Gyrodinium spirale (Bergh) Kofoid et Swezy

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Gyrodinium undulans Hulburt

+

+

+

+

+

+

Heterocapsa minima Pomroy

cf+

cf+

+

+

Heterocapsa niei (Loeblich) Morill et Loeblich (syn. Cachonina niei)

+

+

+

+

+

Heterocapsa rotundata (Lohmann) Hansen (syn. Katodinium rotundatum, Amphidinium rotundatum)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Heterocapsa triquetra (Ehrenberg) Stein (syn. Peridinium triquetrum)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Karenia mikimotoi (Miyake et Kominami ex Oda) Hansen et Moestrup (syn. Gymnodinium mikimotoi, Gyrodinium aureolum*) p t

?

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Katodinium glaucum (Lebour) Loeblich (syn. Massartia glauca)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Mesoporus perforatus (Gran) Lillick

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Nematodinium armatum (Dogiel) Kofoid et Swezy

+

+

+

+

+

Noctiluca scintillans (Macartney) Kofoid (syn. Noctiluca miliaris)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Oblea rotunda (Lebour) Balech ex Sournia (syn. Peridiniopsis rotunda, Glenodinium rotundum)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Oodinium pouchetii (Lemmermann) Chatton

+

+

+

+

Oxyrrhis marina Dujardin q

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Paulsenella chaetoceratis (Paulsen) Chatton

+

+

+

Polykrikos kofoidii Chatton (syn. Polykrikos schwartzii*) r

+

+

+

+

+

Polykrikos schwartzii Bütschli

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Preperidinium meunierii (Pavillard) Elbrächter (syn. Diplopeltopsis minor, Zygabikodinium lenticulatum)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Prorocentrum balticum (Lohmann) Loeblich (syn. Exuviaella balitica)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Prorocentrum micans Ehrenberg

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Prorocentrum minimum (Pavillard) Schiller (syn. Exuviaella mariae-lebouriae, Exuviaella apora*) t

+

+

+

+

+

+

Prorocentrum redfieldii Bursa (syn. Prorocentrum triestinum*) t

+

+

+

+

Proterythropsis vigilans Marshall (syn. Nematopsides vigilans)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Protoceratium reticulatum (Claparède et Lachmann) Bütschli (syn. Gonyaulax grindleyi) t

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Protoperidinium achromaticum (Levander) Balech (syn. Peridinium achromaticum)

cf+

+

+

+

+

Protoperidinium bipes (Paulsen) Balech (syn. Minuscula bipes, Peridinium minusculum)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Protoperidinium brevipes (Paulsen) Balech (syn. Peridinium brevipes)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Protoperidinium cerasus (Paulsen) Balech (syn. Peridinium cerasus) s

+

?+

+

+

+

+

Protoperidinium claudicans (Paulsen) Balech (syn. Peridinium claudicans)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Protoperidinium conicum (Gran) Balech (syn. Peridinium conicum)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Protoperidinium curtipes (Jörgensen) Balech (syn. Peridinium curtipes)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Protoperidinium curvipes (Ostenfeld) Balech (syn. Peridinium curvipes)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Protoperidinium denticulatum (Gran et Braarud) Balech (syn. Peridinium denticulatum)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Protoperidinium depressum (Bailey) Balech (syn. Peridinium depressum)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Protoperidinium divergens (Ehrenberg) Balech (syn. Peridinium divergens) t

cf+

?+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Protoperidinium excentricum (Paulsen) Balech (syn. Peridinium excentricum)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Protoperidinium granii (Ostenfeld) Balech

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Protoperidinium leonis (Pavillard) Balech (syn. Peridinium leonis)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Protoperidinium mariaelebouriae (Paulsen) Balech (syn. Peridinium mariaelebouriae)

+

+

+

+

+

Protoperidinium minutum (Kofoid) Loeblich (syn. Peridinium minutum)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Protoperidinium monospinum (Paulsen) Zonnefeld et Dale

+

?

Protoperidinium oblongum (Aurivillius) Parke et Dodge (syn. Peridinium oblongum)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Protoperidinium obtusum (Karsten) Parke et Dodge (syn. Peridinium obtusum)

+

+

+

Protoperidinium ovatum Pouchet (syn. Peridinium ovatum)

+

+

+

+

+

cf+

+

+

+

+

Protoperidinium pallidum (Ostenfeld) Balech (syn. Peridinium pallidum)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Protoperidinium pellucidum Bergh (syn. Peridinium pellucidum)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Protoperidinium pentagonum (Gran) Balech (syn. Peridinium pentagonum)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Protoperidinium punctulatum (Paulsen) Balech (syn. Peridinium punctulatum)

cf+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Protoperidinium pyriforme (Paulsen) Balech (syn. Peridinium pyriforme)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Protoperidinium steinii (Jörgensen) Balech (syn. Peridinium steinii)

cf+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Protoperidinium subinerme (Paulsen) Loeblich (syn. Peridinium subinerme) u

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Protoperidinium thorianum (Paulsen) Balech (syn. Peridinium thorianum)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Protoperidinium thulesense (Balech) Balech

cf+

+

Pyrophacus horologium Stein

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Scrippsiella lachrymosa Lewis

cf+

+

Scrippsiella trochoidea (Stein) Loeblich (syn. Peridinium trochoideum, Scrippsiella faeroense)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Spatulodinium pseudonoctiluca (Pouchet) Cachon et Cachon ex Loeblich et Loeblich

+

+

+

+

+

Torodinium robustum Kofoid et Swezy

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Warnowia rosea (Pouchet) Kofoid et Swezy

cf+

+

+

+

+

*Misidentification, not taxonomic synonymy

aAccording to Jensen and Moestrup (1998), Chaetoceros compressus is probably mistaken for Chaetoceros contortus

bAccording to Jensen and Moestrup (1998), Chaetoceros willei is a synonym of Chaetoceros affinis

cCoscinodiscus centralis Ehrenberg in Hartley (1986)

dCoscinodiscus perforatus var. pavillardii in Hartley (1986)

eSpecies introduced in 1977, Coscinodiscus nobilis in Robinson et al. (1980)

fSpecies introduced in 1903, Odontella (as Biddulphia) sinensis in Ostenfeld (1908)

gRhizosolenia alata f. indica in Hartley (1986)

hPossibly identical to Thalassios iratealata Takano

iSpecies introduced in 1978 (see Nehring1998; Reise et al.1999)

jSpecies possibly introduced in 1950 (see Nehring1998; Reise et al.1999)

kCeratium bucephalum in Heimdal et al. (1973)

lDiplopsalopsis bomba in Kuylenstierna and Karlson (2000)

mSee Elbrächter and Schnepf (1996), Sournia et al. (1992); L. viride is a misidentification in some cases and not a real synonym

nRequires re-investigation, see comments in Drebes and Elbrächter (1976, p. 81)

oRequires re-investigation

pPossibly an introduced species (see Braarud and Heimdal1970; Hickel et al.1971; Elbrächter1999; Reise et al.1999)

qRecorded in a tidal pool (sample from Dr S. Kühn), not at the Helgoland Reede station

rIn Drebes (1974) as Polykrikos schwartzii (p. 125, Figs. 106a, b)

sMay be in Drebes (1974) as Peridinium sp. (p. 134, Fig. 117c)

tRequires re-investigation

uIn Drebes (1974) as Peridinium punctulatum (p. 140, Figs. 122a, b)

The following changes should also be noted: the genus Neocalyptrella Hernández-Becerril et Meave has replaced Calyptrella (Hernández-Becerril and Meave del Castillo 1997); and Stauropsis membranacea is a synonym of Meuniera membranacea (Cleve) P.C. Silva (Hasle and Syvertsen 1997).

During the year of revision (May 2003 to April 2004), some additional species were recorded at the Helgoland Reede station: Chaetoceros rostratus Lauder; Dactyliosolen fragilissimus (Bergon) Hasle; Fragilaria islandica Grunow sensu Drebes (1974); Stephanopyxis cf palmeriana (Greville) Grunow; and Amphidinium crassum Lohmann.

Discussion

One hundred and thirty-two species of diatoms from 53 genera and 95 species of dinoflagellates from 35 genera were recorded from net samples and cultures. From these 227 taxa, 35 diatoms and 28 dinoflagellate taxa were documented in the Helgoland phytoplankton for the first time. Eleven diatom and four dinoflagellate species could not be found again. Since the publication of the 1976 list (Drebes and Elbrächter 1976), numerous nomenclatural changes have occurred. This list does not claim to be complete, but provides an updated listing. Further continuous observations will be necessary to complete the species list.

Some taxa have been observed but not yet identified to species level, e.g. Thalassiosira spp, Chaetoceros spp, Cyclotella sp, Licmophora spp, Navicula spp, Nitzschia sp, Pleurosigma spp, some benthic diatoms, dinoflagellate species of the Diplopsalis group, Gymnodinium spp, Gyrodinium spp, and Protoperidinium spp. In addition, Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries (Hasle) Hasle was identified in earlier Helgoland samples (Hasle 1995; Hasle et al. 1996) and should be mentioned here because it is toxic.

There have been some single records of benthic, sand-dwelling dinoflagellates: Adenoides eludens (Herdman) Balech, 1956; Amphidinium bipes Herdman, 1924; Amphidinium glabrum Hoppenrath & Okolodkov, 2000; Amphidiniopsis galericulata Hoppenrath, 2000; Prorocentrum clipeus Hoppenrath, 2000; and Thecadinium ornatum Hoppenrath, 2000. In my opinion, these tychoplanktonic species occurred only “by accident” in the plankton and therefore they were not included in the present checklist. Other regularly observed plankton species from other groups include: Phaeocystis globosa Scherffel; Dictyocha speculum Ehrenberg; and Ebria tripartita (Schumann) Lemmermann (see also Drebes 1974).

Detection of long-term trends in the species composition needs more detailed investigations. The high number of “first” records (63) should not be interpreted as a real change in species composition but as a result of more detailed species knowledge. Drebes and Elbrächter have experienced the same results at the Sylt station, Wadden Sea since 1976. Additionally, there have been some newly described species since the 1970s. Some small Thalassiosira species could only be identified using scanning electron microscopy. Since Drebes and Elbrächter’s (1976) checklist, only Coscinodiscus wailesii (Boalch and Harbour 1977; Robinson et al. 1980) and Thalassiosira punctigera (Nehring 1998) have been documented as introduced species. The present list may include some native species which were only discovered recently but may have been around long before without being noticed, because our attention and taxonomic expertise generally decrease with decreasing size of the organisms. Therefore, there is a great need for intensive phytoplankton species documentation as a baseline for a less ambiguous recognition of changes in the species composition with respect to toxic species occurrence and global change aspects. A continuous routine net phytoplankton species monitoring, in combination with the regular determination of the species abundance, is essential.

The comparison of checklists is problematic because of the subjective taxon recognition by the authors and the lack of illustrations of the observed specimens. But it may be useful (e.g. for biogeographic comparisons) to compare this species list with data from other areas, and for convenience records have been added to Table 1 (columns labelled 4–12; Grøntved 1952; Braarud et al. 1953).

Notes

Acknowledgements

I would like to thank H. Halliger, Wadden Sea station Sylt, AWI, for the introduction to phytoplankton diatom identification; M. Elbrächter, Taxonomische Arbeitsgruppe am Forschungsintitut Senckenberg, for his taxonomic advice and his help in the identification of some dinoflagellates; and R. Crawford, AWI Bremerhaven, for valuable comments and his kindness in correcting the English. L. Medlin, AWI Bremerhaven, kindly helped identify the Pseudo-nitzschia species and J.E.B. Rines, University of Rhode Island, identified Chaetoceros rostratus.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag and AWI 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biologische Anstalt HelgolandAlfred Wegener Institute Foundation for Polar and Marine ResearchHelgolandGermany

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