Treatment of ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma
- 177 Downloads
Background. The problem of whether surgical or conservative treatment is indicated for ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been analyzed from the viewpoint of long-term development of hepatitis viral infection from liver fibrosis to liver cirrhosis. Although transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) for hemostasis followed by two-stage hepatectomy has been established as the best treatment for ruptured HCC, there still remain difficulties in the treatment of some patients.
Methods. Twelve patients with ruptured HCC who were surgically or conservatively treated were retrospectively analyzed in terms of modality of treatment, liver function, extension of HCC, complications, survival rate, and cause of death.
Results. Tumor rupture can occur either in the early phase or in the terminal phase during the development from liver fibrosis to liver cirrhosis, while tumor rupture occurs at the advanced stage in terms of HCC extension. TAE for emergent hemostasis or prevention of re-bleeding was performed in ten patients, while TAE was contraindicated in one patient and emergent laparotomy for hemostasis was performed in one patient. In four patients, elective extended surgical resection was performed, because liver function was evaluated as clinical stage 1 according to the General rules for the clinical and pathological study of primary liver cancer of the Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan. In seven patients, conservative or medical treat-ment was selected, because liver function was evaluated as poor. The surgically treated group, who could tolerate extensive operation, survived longer than the conservatively treated group.
Conclusions. While TAE remains the best method to employ for hemostasis, it still has limitations. Hence, we should be mindful of other possible modalities for hemostasis and their outcomes. Rupture of HCC at an early phase in the development of liver fibrosis is a good indication for elective surgical treatment and should be distinguished from rupture in the terminal phase of liver cirrhosis, which should be treated conservatively. Although elective surgical treatment can be performed in selected patients, tumor size and location of HCC, in addition to liver function, should be taken into consideration.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.