Management and eradication options for Queensland fruit fly
- 358 Downloads
Several tephritid fruit flies have explosive population growth and a wide host range, resulting in some of the largest impacts on horticultural crops, reducing marketable produce, and limiting market access. For these pests, early detection and eradication are routinely implemented in vulnerable areas. However, social and consumer concerns can limit the types of population management tools available for fruit fly incursion responses. Deterministic population models were used to compare eradication tools used at typical densities alone and in combination against the Queensland fruit fly (‘Qfly’), Bactrocera tryoni. The models suggested that tools that prevent egg laying are likely to be most effective at reducing populations. Tools that induced mortality once Qfly was sexually mature only slowed population growth, as successful mating still occurred. Release of sterile Qfly when using the sterile insect technique (SIT) interferes with the successful mating of wild flies, and of the tools investigated here, SIT caused the greatest reduction in the population at the prescribed release rate. Used in tandem with SIT, protein baits slightly improved the rate of population reduction, but the male annihilation technique (MAT) almost nullified control by SIT due to the mortality induced on sterile flies. The model suggested that the most rapid decrease in population size would be achieved by SIT plus protein baits. However, the model predicted both the SIT and protein baits when used alone would result in population reduction. The MAT can be used prior to SIT release to increase overflooding ratios.
KeywordsBactrocera tryoni Lure and kill Male annihilation technique Protein bait Sterile insect release Tephritidae
This project, HG13034, has been funded by Horticulture Innovation Australia Limited with co-investment from The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Limited and funds from the Australian Government. We thank the Better Border Biosecurity collaboration (http://www.b3nz.org), Andrew Jessup for providing unpublished reports, and Howard Wearing, Alistair Hall, Tony Clarke, Hazel Parry and two anonymous reviewers for greatly improving an earlier draft of the manuscript and model assumptions, Donna Gibson for enhancing figure 1 and Megan Gee for literature support.
LDS, JMK, JRB and DMS conceived the research. LDS and JMK developed the model. LDS prepared the manuscript and JMK, JRB and DMS edited the manuscript. All authors read and approved the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Research involving human participants and/or animals
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
- Anon (1996) Code of practice for the management of Queensland fruit fly. In: standing committee on agriculture and resource management. Department of Primary Industries, CanberraGoogle Scholar
- Barclay HJ (2005) Mathematical models for the use of sterile insects. In: Dyck VA, Hendrichs J, Robinson AS (eds) Sterile insect technique. Principles and practice in area-wide integrated pest management. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 147–174Google Scholar
- Barclay HJ, Hendrichs J (2014a) Modeling trapping of fruit flies for detection, supression, or eradication. In: Trapping and the detection, control, and regulation of tephritid fruit flies: lures, area-wide programs, and trade implications. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 457–492, (e-Book)Google Scholar
- Brockerhoff EG, Liebhold AM, Richardson B, Suckling DM (2010) Eradication of invasive forest insects: concept, methods, costs and benefits. N Z J For 40:S117–S135Google Scholar
- Dominiak BC, Sundaralingam S, Jiang L, Jessup AJ, Barchia IM (2008) Production levels and life history traits of mass reared Queensland fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae) during 1999/2002 in Australia. Plant Prot Q 23:131–135Google Scholar
- Ero MM, Hamacek E, Clarke AR (2011) Foraging behaviours of Diachasmimorpha kraussii (Fullaway) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and its host Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in a nectarine (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch var. nectarina (Aiton) Maxim) orchard. Aust J Entomol 50:234–240Google Scholar
- HIAL (2016) Horticulture Innovation Australia Limited. SITplus partnership. http://horticulture.com.au/how-we-invest-2/sitplus-partnership/. Accessed 28 May 2016
- Jessup AJ, Dominiak B, Woods B, De Lima CPF, Thomkins A, Smallridge C (2007) Area wide management of fruit flies in Australia. In: Vreysen MJB, Robinson AS, Hendrichs J (eds) Area-wide control of insect pests: from research to field implementation. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 685–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kagbadouno MS, Camara M, Bouyer J, Courtin F, Onikoyamou MF, Schofield CJ, Solano P (2011) Progress towards the eradication of Tsetse from the Loos islands, Guinea. Parasit Vectors 4: Article 18Google Scholar
- Kean JM (2015) The effective sampling area of traps: estimation and application. In: Beresford RM, Froud KJ, Kean JM, Worner SP (eds) The plant protection data toolbox. New Zealand Plant Protection Society Inc, Christchurch, pp 67–76Google Scholar
- Kean JM, Suckling DM, Sullivan NJ, Tobin PC, Stringer LD, Smith GR, Lee DC, Flores Vargas R, Fletcher J, Macbeth F, McCullough DG, Herms DA, Kimber B (2017) Global eradication and response database http://b3.net.nz/gerda/index.php. Accessed 24 May 2017
- Lloyd A, Smith D, Hamacek E, Kopittke R, Pinese B, De Lima F, Broughton S, Jessup A, MacDonald J, Mangan B, Moreno D, Downard P, Cross S, Papacek D (2003) Improved protein bait formulations for fruit fly control. Report to HAL 00012. Horticultural Australia Ltd., SydneyGoogle Scholar
- Mahat K, Drew RAI (2015) Evaluation of protein bait laced with various insecticides on the Queensland fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae): attraction, feeding, mortality and bait persistence. In: Peña L, Sabater-Muñoz B, Navarro L, Morena P (eds) XII International Citrus Congress - International Society of Citriculture, 18–23 November 2012, Valencia, 2015. Acta Horticulturae, pp 1041–1048Google Scholar
- Meats A (1998) Predicting or interpreting trap catches resulting from natural propagules or releases of sterile fruit flies. An actuarial and dispersal model tested with data on Bactrocera tryoni. Gen Appl Entomol 28:29–38Google Scholar
- Meats A, Clift AD, Perepelicia N (2002) Performance of permanent and supplementary traps for Mediterranean and Queensland fruit flies in South Australia 1975–2001: comparison of male lure and food lure traps. Gen Appl Entomol 31:53–58Google Scholar
- Piñero JC, Enkerlin W, Epsky ND (2014) Recent developments and applications of bait stations for integrated pest management of tephritid fruit flies. In: Shelly T, Epsky N, Jang EB, Reyes-Flores J, Vargas R (eds) Trapping and the detection, control, and regulation of tephritid fruit flies: lures, area-wide programs, and trade implications. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 457–492, (e-book) Google Scholar
- Reynolds OL, Jessup A, Dominiak B, Smallridge C, Cockington V, Penrose L, Taylor P, Collins S (2012) Enhancing emergence and release methods of the sterile insect technique (SIT) to improve market access. Report to Horticulture Australia Limited MT06049. Horticultural Australia Ltd., SydneyGoogle Scholar
- Suckling DM, Barrington AM, Chhagan A, Stephens AEA, Burnip GM, Charles JG, Wee SL (2007) Eradication of the Australian painted apple moth Teia anartoides in New Zealand: trapping, inherited sterility, and male competitiveness. In: Vreysen MJB, Robinson AS, Hendrichs J (eds) Area-wide control of insect pests: from research to field implementation. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 603–615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tobin PC (2015) Ecological consequences of pathogen and insect invasions. Curr For Rep 1:25–32Google Scholar
- Vargas RI, Piñero JC, Mau RFL, Jang EB, Klungness LM, McInnis DO, Harris EB, McQuate GT, Bautista RC, Wong L (2010) Area-wide suppression of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, and the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in Kamuela, Hawaii. J Insect Sci 10:Article 135CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar