Population Ecology

, Volume 56, Issue 2, pp 289–300 | Cite as

Comparison of the diversity, composition, and host recurrence of xylariaceous endophytes in subtropical, cool temperate, and subboreal regions in Japan

  • Anzu Ikeda
  • Shunsuke Matsuoka
  • Hayato Masuya
  • Akira S. Mori
  • Dai Hirose
  • Takashi Osono
Original article


The diversity, composition, and host recurrence of endophytic fungi in the Xylariaceae were compared in subtropical (ST), cool temperate (CT), and subboreal forests (SB) in Japan based on the 28S ribosomal DNA sequences from fungal isolates. A total of 610 isolates were obtained from the leaves of 167 tree species in three sites, which were classified into 42 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the 99 % similarity level of the 28S rDNA sequence. ST, CT, and SB yielded 31, 13, and three OTUs, respectively. The OTU richness, diversity, and evenness of fungal communities were in the order: ST > CT > SB. The 42 OTUs were assigned to nine genera in the Xylariaceae: Xylaria, Annulohypoxylon, Anthostomella, Biscogniauxia, Nemania, Hypoxylon, Muscodor, Daldinia, and Rosellinia. Xylarioid isolates in the subfamily Xylarioideae outnumbered Hypoxyloid isolates in the subfamily Hypoxyloideae in ST and CT, whereas the opposite was found in SB. Sørensen’s quotient of similarity was generally low between the three sites. Host recurrence of fungal OTUs was evaluated with the degree of specialization of interaction network between xylariaceous endophytes and plant species and compared between the three sites. We found that the networks in the three sites showed a significantly higher degree of specialization than simulated networks, where partners were associated randomly. Permutational multivariate analyses of variance indicated that plant family and leaf trait significantly affected the OTU composition in ST, which can account for the specialization of interaction network and host recurrence of xylariaceous endophytes.


Climate Foliar endophytic fungi Interaction network rDNA sequence analysis Xylariaceae 



We thank Dr. A. Takashima and staff at the Yona Experimental Forest, University of the Ryukyus for help with fieldwork; Dr. I. Okane for useful discussions; and Dr. M. Ushio, Dr. S. Sakai, and Ms. C. Sakaguchi for help with the data analyses. This study received partial financial support from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan (MEXT) (No. 23770083) to T.O., the Global COE Program A06 and Grants for Excellent Graduate Schools, MEXT, Japan (12-01) to Kyoto University, the Global Environmental Research Fund (RF-086) of the Ministry of the Environment, Japan to H.M., the Japan Securities Scholarship Foundation and the Sumitomo Foundation to A.S.M., and the “Academic Frontier” Project for Private Universities: a matching fund subsidy from MEXT to D.H.

Supplementary material

10144_2013_412_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (128 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 127 kb)


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Copyright information

© The Society of Population Ecology and Springer Japan 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anzu Ikeda
    • 1
  • Shunsuke Matsuoka
    • 1
  • Hayato Masuya
    • 2
  • Akira S. Mori
    • 3
  • Dai Hirose
    • 4
  • Takashi Osono
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Ecological ResearchKyoto UniversityOtsuJapan
  2. 2.Forestry and Forest Products Research InstituteTsukubaJapan
  3. 3.Graduate School of Environmental and Information ScienceYokohama National UniversityYokohamaJapan
  4. 4.College of PharmacyNihon UniversityFunabashiJapan

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