Population Ecology

, Volume 49, Issue 3, pp 221–227 | Cite as

A phenotypic trade-off between previous growth and present fecundity in round sardinella Sardinella aurita

  • Athanassios C. Tsikliras
  • Efthimia Antonopoulou
  • Konstantinos I. Stergiou
Original Article


The decision of how to allocate surplus energy to reproduction and growth can have important effects on fish population dynamics as well as on other life history traits. The natural examples on the interrelationship between maternal growth and number of offspring produced in fishes are scarce. We tested the hypothesis that these traits are competing for resources by estimating maternal previous growth decisions, using back-calculation, and present reproduction, expressed as absolute fecundity, of female round sardinella (Sardinella aurita) in the northeastern Mediterranean Sea. Despite the overall increasing trend of fecundity with age, individual fecundity was negatively related to individual specific growth rate between the most recent annulus formation and spawning within ages. A decreasing trend between previous growth rate and present fecundity emerged, showing that round sardinella allocate increasingly less energy to growth with age and more into reproduction and that the previous growth decisions determine present fecundity.


Energy Reproduction Growth Life history Round sardinella 


  1. Arendt JD (1997) Adaptive intrinsic growth rates: an integration across taxa. Q Rev Biol 72:1–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bagenal TB, Braum E (1978) Eggs and early life history. In: Bagenal TB (ed) Methods for assessment of fish production in freshwaters. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 165–201Google Scholar
  3. Bell G (1980) The costs of reproduction and their consequences. Am Nat 116:45–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bertschy KA, Fox MG (1999) The influence of age-specific survivorship on pumpkinseed sunfish life histories. Ecology 80:2299–2313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Birkeland C, Dayton PK (2005) The importance in fishery management of leaving the big ones. Trends Ecol Evol 20:356–358PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bronikowski AM, Arnold SJ (1999) The evolutionary ecology of life history variation in the garter snake Thamnophis elegans. Ecology 80:2314–2325Google Scholar
  7. Candolin U (1998) Reproduction under predation risk and the trade-off between current and future reproduction in the threespine stickleback. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 265:1171–1175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Charnov EL (1993) Life history invariants. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  9. Conover DO, Munch SB (2002) Sustaining fisheries yields over evolutionary time scales. Science 297:94–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cook RM, Kunzlik PA, Hislop JRG, Poulding D (1999) Models of growth and maturity for North Sea cod. J Northwest Atl Fish Sci 25:91–99Google Scholar
  11. Crim LW, Glebe BD (1990) Reproduction. In: Schreck CB, Moyle PB (eds) Methods for fish biology. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, pp 529–547Google Scholar
  12. Denney NH, Jennings S, Reynolds JD (2002) Life-history correlates of maximum population growth rates in marine fishes. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 269:2229–2237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Einum S, Fleming IA (2000) Highly fecund mothers sacrifice offspring survival to maximise fitness. Nature 405:565–567PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Francis RICC (1990) Back-calculation of fish length: a critical review. J Fish Biol 36:883–902CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ghalambor CK, Reznick DN, Walker JA (2004) Constraints on adaptive evolution: the functional trade-off between reproduction and fast-start swimming performance in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Am Nat 164:38–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Glazier DS (1999) Trade-offs between reproductive and somatic (storage) investments in animals: a comparative test of the Van Noordwijk and de Jong model. Evol Ecol 13:539–555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gunderson DR (1997) Trade-off between reproductive effort and adult survival in oviparous and viviparous fishes. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 54:990–998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Heino M, Kaitala V (1999) Evolution of resource allocation between growth and reproduction in animals with indeterminate growth. J Evol Biol 12:423–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hofmann HA, Benson ME, Fernald RD (1999) Social status regulates growth rate: consequences for life-history strategies. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 96:14171–14176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hutchings JA (2000) Collapse and recovery of marine fishes. Nature 406:881–885CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hutchings JA, Jones MEB (1999) Life history variation and growth rate thresholds for maturity in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 55(Suppl 1):22–47Google Scholar
  22. Jonsson N, Jonsson B (1999) Trade-off between egg mass and egg number in brown trout. J Fish Biol 55:767–783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jonsson B, L’Abee-Lund JH, Heggberget TG, Jensen AJ, Johnsen BJ, Naesje TF, Saettem LM (1992) Longevity, body size, and growth in anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 48:1838–1845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jonsson N, Jonsson B, Fleming IA (1996) Does early growth cause a phenotypically plastic response in egg production of Atlantic salmon? Funct Ecol 10:89–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kim S, Hong S (2004) Reproductive biology of Palaemon gravieri (Decapoda: Caridea: Palaemonidae). J Crust Biol 24:121–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Krist AC, Lively CM (1998) Experimental exposure of juvenile snails (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) to infection by trematode larvae (Microphallus sp.): infectivity, fecundity compensation and growth. Oecologia 116:575–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lardner B, Loman J (2003) Growth or reproduction? Resource allocation by female frogs Rana temporaria. Oecologia 442:541–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Law R (1979) The cost of reproduction in annual meadow grass. Am Nat 113:3–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. McManus MG, Travis J (1998) Effects of temperature and salinity on the life history of the sailfin molly (Pisces: Poeciliidae): lipid storage and reproductive allocation. Oecologia 114:317–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Metcalfe NB, Monaghan P (2001) Compensation for a bad start: grow now, pay later? Trends Ecol Evol 16:254–260CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Morgan IJ, Metcalfe NB (2001) Deferred costs of catch-up growth after autumnal food shortage in juvenile salmon. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 268:295–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Morita K, Yamamoto S, Takashima Y, Matsuishi T, Kanno Y, Nishimura K (1999) Effect of maternal growth history on egg number and size in wild white-spotted char (Salvelinus leucomaenis). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 56:1585–1589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Poizat G, Rosecchi E, Crivelli AJ (1999) Empirical evidence of a trade-off between reproductive effort and expectation of future reproduction in female three-spined sticklebacks. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 266:1543–1548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Price ER, Wallace BP, Reina RD, Spotila JR, Paladino FV, Piedra R, Velez E (2004) Size, growth and reproductive output of adult female leatherback turtles Dermochelys coriacea. Endang Species Res 5:1–8Google Scholar
  35. Reznick DN (1983) The structure of guppy life histories: the trade-off between growth and reproduction. Ecology 64:862–873CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Reznick D (1985) Cost of reproduction: an evaluation of the empirical evidence. Oikos 44:257–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Reznick D (1992) Measuring the costs of reproduction. Trends Ecol Evol 7:42–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Reznick D, Nunney L, Tessier A (2000) Big houses, big cars, superfleas and the costs of reproduction. Trends Ecol Evol 15:421–425CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Ricker WE (1975) Computation and interpretation of biological statistics of fish populations. Bull Fish Res Bd Can 191:1–382Google Scholar
  40. Robinson BW, Wardrop SL (2002) Experimentally manipulated growth rate in threespine sticklebacks: assessing trade offs with developmental stability. Environ Biol Fish 63:67–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Roff DA (1982) Reproductive strategies in flatfish: a first synthesis. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 39:1686–1698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Roff DA (1983) An allocation model of growth and reproduction in fish. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 40:1395–1404Google Scholar
  43. Roff DA (1992) The evolution of life histories. Theory and analysis. Chapman and Hall, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  44. Roff DA (2000) Trade-offs between growth and reproduction: an analysis of the quantitative genetic evidence. J Evol Biol 13:434–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Roff DA, Heibo E, Vollestad LA (2006) The importance of growth and mortality costs in the evolution of the optimal life history. J Evol Biol 19:1920–1930PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sadovy Y (2001) The threat of fishing to highly fecund fishes. J Fish Biol 59(Suppl A):90–108Google Scholar
  47. Schultz ET, Warner RR (1991) Phenotypic plasticity in life-history traits of female Thalassoma bifasciatum (Pisces: Labridae): 2. Correlation of fecundity and growth rate in comparative studies. Environ Biol Fish 30:333–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Stearns SC (1992) The evolution of life histories. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  49. Tsikliras AC, Antonopoulou E (2006) Τhe reproductive biology of round sardinella, Sardinella aurita, in northeastern Mediterranean. Sci Mar 70:281–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tsikliras AC, Koutrakis ET, Stergiou KI (2005) Age and growth of round sardinella (Sardinella aurita) in the north-eastern Mediterranean. Sci Mar 69:231–240Google Scholar
  51. van Rooij JM, Brugemann JH, Videler JJ, Breeman AM (1995) Plastic growth of the herbivorous reef fish Sparisoma viride: field evidence for a trade-off between growth and reproduction. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 122:93–105Google Scholar
  52. Vollestad LA, Quinn TP (2003) Trade-off between growth rate and aggression in juvenile coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch. Anim Behav 66:561–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ware DM (1980) Bioenergetics of stock and recruitment. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 37:1012–1024Google Scholar
  54. Williams GC (1966) Natural selection, the cost of reproduction and a refinement of Lack’s principle. Am Nat 100:687–690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wootton RJ (1977) Effect of food ration during the breeding season on the size, body components and egg production of female sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.). J Anim Ecol 46:823–834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wootton RJ (1998) Ecology of teleost fishes. Fish and fisheries series 24, 2nd edn. Kluwer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Society of Population Ecology and Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Athanassios C. Tsikliras
    • 1
  • Efthimia Antonopoulou
    • 1
  • Konstantinos I. Stergiou
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Zoology, School of BiologyAristotle University of ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece

Personalised recommendations