Advertisement

Population Ecology

, Volume 48, Issue 3, pp 177–188 | Cite as

Measuring the dispersal of saproxylic insects: a key characteristic for their conservation

  • Thomas Ranius
Original Article Special feature: effects of anthropogenic habitat changes on plant and animal populations

Abstract

In the discipline of nature conservation it is important to understand under which circumstances populations can survive by compensating local extinctions with colonizations. Many saproxylic (= wood-dwelling) insect species have declining populations and are regarded as threatened due to low habitat availability in managed forests. Several methods have been used to better understand the dispersal biology and colonization ability of saproxylic insects with declining populations. The present article summarizes and compares the results of such studies. When the same species have been studied using several methods, the results are consistent, but different aspects of dispersal biology are revealed with different methods. Capture-recapture and telemetry are direct methods that can be used to quantify dispersal rate and range in the field. Studies of genetic structure and occupancy patterns are complementary, as they reveal the consequences of dispersals that have taken place over a larger spatial and temporal scale than is possible to study with direct methods. Because colonization, rather than dispersal, is important for population persistence, colonization experiments provide useful information. To obtain information relevant for conservation work, dispersal studies should be conducted on model species that are representative of threatened species. Colonization ability probability differs between common and rare species, and therefore it is important to also study the dispersal of rare species, even if it is more difficult.

Keywords

Capture-recapture Colonization Dead wood Osmoderma eremita Telemetry Tethered flight 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Barbara Ekbom, Markus Franzén, Mats Jonsell, Mattias Jonsson, Stig Larsson, and Martin Schroeder have given valuable comments to the manuscript. Jens Johannesson, Mats Jonsell, Mattias Jonsson and Niklas Jönsson have kindly provided photographs and graphs. This work has been done within the project “Predicting extinction risks for threatened wood-living insects in dynamic landscapes” financed by The Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning. We were permitted to reprint figures from Computers and Electronics in Agriculture (copyright by Elsevier), Entomologisk Tidskrift and Animal Biodiversity & Conservation.

References

  1. Baguette M, Petit S, Quéva F (2000) Population spatial structure and migration of three butterfly species within the same habitat network: consequences for conservation. J Appl Ecol 37:100–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beaudoin-Ollivier L, Bonaccorso F, Aloysius M, Kasiki M (2003) Flight movement of Scapanes australis australis (Boisduval) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) in Papua New Guinea: a radiotelemetry study. Aust J Entomol 42:367–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bossart JL, Pashley Prowell D (1998) Genetic estimates of population structure and gene flow: limitations, lessons and new directions. Trends Ecol Evol 13:202–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brown JH, Kodrick-Brown A (1977) Turnover rates in insular biogeography: effect of immigration on extinction. Ecology 58:445–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Forsse E (1991) Flight propensity and diapause incidence in five populations of the bark beetle Ips typographus in Scandinavia. Entomol Exp Appl 61:53–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Forsse E, Solbreck C (1985) Migration in the bark beetle Ips typographus L.: duration, timing and height of flights. Z Angew Entomol 100:47–57Google Scholar
  7. Hanski I (1999) Metapopulation ecology. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. Hanski I, Ovaskainen O (2002) Extinction debt at extinction threshold. Conserv Biol 16:666–673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hanski I, Zhang D-Y (1993) Migration, metapopulation dynamics and fugitive co-existence. J Theor Biol 163:491–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hanski I, Kuussaari M, Nieminen M (1994) Metapopulation structure and migration in the butterfly Melitaea cinxia. Ecology 75:747–762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hanski I, Alho J, Moilanen A (2000) Estimating the parameters of survival and migration of individuals in metapopulations. Ecology 81:239–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hansson L, Söderström L, Solbreck C (1992) The ecology of dispersal in relation to conservation. In: Hansson L (ed) Ecological principles of nature conservation: applications in temperate and boreal environments. Elsevier Applied Science, London, pp 162–200Google Scholar
  13. Hedin J, Ranius T (2002) Using radio telemetry to study dispersal of the beetle Osmoderma eremita, an inhabitant of tree hollows. Comput Electron Agr 35:171–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hedin J, Ranius T, Nilsson SG, Smith HG (2003) Predicted restricted dispersal in a flying beetle confirmed by telemetry. In: Hedin J (ed) Metapopulation ecology of Osmoderma eremita – dispersal, habitat quality and habitat history. Dissertation. Lund University, Lund, pp 75–81Google Scholar
  15. Hill JK, Thomas CD, Lewis OT (1996) Effects of habitat patch size and isolation on dispersal by Hesperia comma butterflies: implications for metapopulation structure. J Anim Ecol 65:725–735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Holland JD, Bert DG, Fahrig L (2004) Determining the spatial scale of species’ response to habitat. Bioscience 54:229–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Humphry SJ, Linit MJ (1989) Tethered flight of Monochamus carolinensis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) with respect to beetle age and sex. Environ Entomol 18:124–126Google Scholar
  18. Huxel GR, Hastings A (1999) Habitat loss, fragmentation, and restoration. Restor Ecol 7:309–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Johnson ML, Gaines MS (1990) Evolution of dispersal: theoretical models and empirical tests using birds and mammals. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 21:449–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jonsell M, Nordlander G (2002) Insects in polypore fungi as indicator species: a comparison between forest sites differing in amounts and continuity of dead wood. For Ecol Manage 157:101–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jonsell M, Nordlander G, Jonsson M (1999) Colonization patterns of insects breeding in wood-decaying fungi. J Insect Conserv 3:145–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jonsell M, Schroeder M, Larsson T (2003) The saproxylic beetle Bolitophagus reticulatus: its frequency in managed forests, attraction to volatiles and flight period. Ecography 26:421–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jonsson M (2003) Colonisation ability of the threatened tenebrionid beetle Oplocephala haemorrhoidalis and its common relative Bolitophagus reticulatus. Ecol Entomol 28:159–167CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  24. Jonsson M (2005) Spridningsförmågan hos insekter knutna till klibticka och fnöskticka [Dispersal abilities of insects associated with fruiting bodies of the wood-decaying fungi Fomitopsis pinicola and Fomes fomentarius (In Swedish, with English abstract). Ent Tidskr 126:205–213Google Scholar
  25. Jonsson M, Nordlander G (2006) Insect colonisation of fruiting bodies of the wood-decaying fungus Fomitopsis pinicola at different distances from an old-growth forest. Biodiv Conserv 15:295–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jonsson M, Johannesen J, Seitz A (2003) Comparative genetic structure of the threatened tenebrionid beetle Oplocephala haemorrhoidalis and its common relative Bolitophagus reticulatus. J Insect Conserv 7:111–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kehler D, Bondrup-Nielsen S (1999) Effects of isolation on the occurrence of a fungivorous forest beetle, Bolitotherus cornutus, at different spatial scales in fragmented and continuous forests. Oikos 84:35–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kindvall O (1995) The impact of extreme weather on habitat preference and survival in a metapopulation of the bush cricket Metrioptera bicolor in Sweden. Biol Conserv 73:51–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Knutsen H, Rukke BA, Jorde P-E, Ims RA (2000) Genetic differentiation among populations of the beetle Bolitophagus reticulatus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in a fragmented and continuous landscape. Heredity 84:667–676CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Koenig WD, Van Vuren D, Hooge PN (1996) Detectability, philopatry, and the distribution of dispersal distances in vertebrates. Trends Ecol Evol 11:514–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kotiaho JS, Kaitala V, Komonen A, Päivinen J (2005) Predicting the risk of extinction from shared ecological characteristics. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:1963–1967CrossRefPubMedADSGoogle Scholar
  32. Levins R (1969) Some demographic and genetic consequences of environmental heterogeneity for biological control. Bull Entomol Soc Am 15:237–240Google Scholar
  33. Levins R (1970) Extinction. In: Gerstenhaber M (ed) Some mathematical problems in biology. American Mathematical Society, Providence, pp 75–107Google Scholar
  34. Mennechez G, Schtickzelle N, Baguette M (2003) Metapopulation dynamics of the bog fritillary butterfly: comparison of demographic parameters and dispersal between a continuous and a highly fragmented landscape. Land Ecol 18:279–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mueller UG, Wolfenbarger L (1999) AFLP genotyping and fingerprinting. Trends Ecol Evol 14:389–394CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Nève G, Baraseud B, Hughes R, Aubert J, Descimon H, Lebrun P, Baguette M (1996) Dispersal, colonization power and metapopulation structure in the vulnerable butterfly Proclossiana eunomia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). J Appl Ecol 33:14–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Nilssen AC (1984) Long-range aerial dispersal of bark beetles and bark weevils (Coleoptera, Scolytidae and Curculionidae) in northern Finland. Ann Entomol Fenn 50:37–42Google Scholar
  38. Nilsson T (1997) Metapopulation dynamics in the black tinder fungus beetle, Bolitophagus reticulatus. In: Spatial population dynamics of the black tinder fungus beetle, Bolitophagus reticulatus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Dissertation, Uppsala University, UppsalaGoogle Scholar
  39. Nilsson SG, Baranowski R (1994) Indikatorer på jätteträdskontinuitet – svenska förekomster av knäppare som är beroende av grova, levande träd [Indicators of megatree continuity – Swedish distribution of click beetles (Coleoptera, Elateridae) dependent on hollow trees (In Swedish, with an English abstract)]. Entomol Tidskr 115:81–97 Google Scholar
  40. Ovaskainen O (2004) Habitat-specific movement parameters estimated using mark–recapture data and a diffusion model. Ecology 85:242–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Peltonen A, Hanski I (1991) Patterns of island occupancy explained by colonization and extinction rates in shrews. Ecology 72:1698–1708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pulliam HR (1988) Sources, sinks, and population regulation. Am Nat 132:652–661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ranius T (2000) Minimum viable metapopulation size of a beetle, Osmoderma eremita, living in tree hollows. Anim Conserv 3:37–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ranius T (2001) Constancy and asynchrony of Osmoderma eremita populations in tree hollows. Oecologia 126:208–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ranius T (2002a) Influence of stand size and quality of tree hollows on saproxylic beetles in Sweden. Biol Conserv 103:85–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ranius T (2002b) Population ecology and conservation of beetles and pseudoscorpions living in hollow oaks in Sweden. Anim Biodivers Conserv 25.1:53–68Google Scholar
  47. Ranius T, Douwes P (2002) Genetic structure of two pseudoscorpion species living in tree hollows in Sweden. Anim Biodivers Conserv 25.2:67–75Google Scholar
  48. Ranius T, Hedin J (2001) The dispersal rate of a beetle, Osmoderma eremita, living in tree hollows. Oecologia 126:363–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ranius T, Jansson N (2002) A comparison of three methods to survey saproxylic beetles in hollow oaks. Biodivers Conserv 11:1759–1771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ranius T, Kindvall O (2006) Extinction risk of wood-living model species in forest landscapes as related to forest history and conservation strategy. Land Ecol (in press)Google Scholar
  51. Ranius T, Wilander P (2000) Occurrence of Larca lata H.J. Hansen (Pseudoscorpionida: Garypidae) and Allechernes wideri C.L. Koch (Pseudoscorpionida: Chernetidae) in tree hollows in relation to habitat quality and density. J Insect Conserv 4:23–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Roff DA (1994) Habitat persistence and the evolution of wing dimorphism in insects. Am Nat 144:772–798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Roslin T (2000) Dung beetle movements at two spatial scales. Oikos 91:323–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Rukke BA, Midtgaard F (1998) The importance of scale and spatial variables for the fungivorous beetle Bolitophagus reticulatus (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) in a fragmented forest landscape. Ecography 21:561–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Schneider C (2003) The influence of spatial scale on quantifying insect dispersal: an analysis of butterfly data. Ecol Entomol 28:252–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Siitonen J (2001) Forest management, coarse woody debris and saproxylic organisms: Fennoscandian boreal forests as an example. Ecol Bull 49:11–41Google Scholar
  57. Slatkin M (1987) Gene flow and the geographic structure of natural populations. Science 236:787–792PubMedCrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  58. Southwood TRE (1962) Migration of terrestrial arthropods in relation to habitat. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 37:171–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Speight MCD (1989) Saproxylic invertebrates and their conservation. Council of Europe, StrasbourgGoogle Scholar
  60. Sprecher-Uebersax E, Durrer H (2001) Verhaltensstudien beim Hirschkäfer mittels Telemetrie und Videoaufzeichnungen (Coleoptera, Lucanus cervus L.). Mitt Naturforsch Gesellsch Basel 5:161–182Google Scholar
  61. Starzomski BM, Bondrup-Nielsen S (2002) Analysis of movement and the consequence for metapopulation structure of the forked fungus beetle, Bolitotherus cornutus Panzer (Tenebrionidae). Ecoscience 9:20–27Google Scholar
  62. Sverdrup-Thygeson A, Midtgaard F (1998) Fungus-infected trees as islands in boreal forest: spatial distribution of the fungivorous beetle Bolitophagus reticulatus (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae). Ecoscience 5:486–493Google Scholar
  63. Thomas CD (2000) Dispersal and extinction in fragmented landscapes. Proc R Soc Lond Ser B 267:139–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Thomas CD, Thomas JA, Warren MS (1992) Distributions of occupied and vacant butterfly habitats in fragmented landscapes. Oecologia 92:563–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Togashi K (1990) A field experiment on dispersal of newly emerged adults of Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Res Popul Ecol 32:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Whitlock MC (1992) Nonequilibrium population structure in forked fungus beetles: extinction, colonization, and the genetic variance among populations. Am Nat 139:952–970CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Society of Population Ecology and Springer-Verlag Tokyo 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EntomologySwedish University of Agricultural SciencesUppsalaSweden

Personalised recommendations