Fedor Krause (1857–1937): the father of neurosurgery

  • Susanna BacigaluppiEmail author
  • Nicola Luigi Bragazzi
  • Mariano Martini


Fedor Krause’s inspiring biography shows the value of translational thinking: one of the fathers of modern neurosurgery, this gifted child was recognized for his musical talent; he was able to study medicine thanks to financial support in recognition for his study performances. He wrote his doctor thesis on pneumology, and contributed to general surgery, neuroanaethesiology, and neurosurgery application of novel technologies in neurosurgery and ethics. More in detail, in the neurosurgical field, he performed the first lumbar discectomy, set up intraoperative nerve monitoring, and pioneered trigeminal and acusticus nerve surgery, epilepsy surgery, and cortical mapping. His passion and engagement for surgery allowed him to make small centers turn into great centers recognized as renowned academic environments.


Fedor Krause History of neurosurgery Epilepsy surgery Cortical stimulation Trigeminal nerve surgery Cranial nerve decompression Lumbar disc surgery Vestibular schwannoma 



The authors wish to thank Prof. Hartmut Collmann, Würzburg, for helpful and important comments and the images.

Authors contribution

Manuscript concept and structure: Susanna Bacigaluppi; literature search: Nicola L. Bragazzi, Susanna Bacigaluppi; writing/editing: Nicola L. Bragazzi, Susanna Bacigaluppi; discussion and revision: Mariano Martini; approval of the final manuscript: all authors. For English language revision, the authors wish to thank Rosalind Hendricks.

Compliance with ethical standards

The present study is a historical review and thus neither ethics approval nor informed consent were required.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryE.O. GallieraGenoaItaly
  2. 2.Section of History of Medicine and Ethics, Department of Health Sciences (DISSAL)University of GenoaGenoaItaly
  3. 3.School of Public Health, Department of Health Sciences (DISSAL)University of GenoaGenoaItaly

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