Surgical management of traumatic supra and infratentorial extradural hematomas: our experience and systematic literature review
Post-traumatic supra and infratentorial acute extradural hematomas (SIEDHs) are an uncommon type of extradural hematoma with only few small series published. In this scenario, the purposes of the present study are to present our experience in the management of 8 patients with acute SIEDH and to perform a systematic literature review. The clinical and radiological data of 8 patients operated for SIEDH at our department were analyzed retrospectively. Using the PRISMA guidelines, we reviewed the articles published from January 1990 to January 2018 reporting data about SIEDH. A total of 3 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. The incidence of SIEDHs is very rare constituting < 2% of all traumatic extradural hematomas (EDH). SIEDHs are associated with non-specific symptoms. Only 20% of patients were in coma (GCS < 8) at admission. A “lucid interval” was not reported. The source of bleeding of SIEDH was venous in all cases due to the following: bone fracture with diploe bleeding (50%), transverse/sigmoid sinus injury (22%), oozing meningeal venous vessel (8%), detachment of transverse sinus without wall injury (6%), and unknown in the other cases. Due to the venous nature of the source of hemorrhage, the clinical manifestation of a SIEDH may develop in a slow way, but once a critical volume of hematoma is reached, the deterioration can become rapid and fatal for acute brain stem compression. Surgery is the mainstay of SIEDHs treatment: among 42 cases with SIEDH included in this review, 40 (95.23%) patients were treated with surgery while only two were managed conservatively. Also in our series, all patients underwent surgery. A combined supratentorial craniotomy and suboccipital craniotomy leaving in a bone bridge over the transverse sinus for dural tenting sutures resulted the most used and safe surgical approach. SIEDH is a rare type of EDH. Early diagnosis of SIEDH and prompt surgical evacuation with a combined supratentorial and suboccipital approach provide excellent recovery.
KeywordsTraumatic extradural hematoma Posterior fossa Supratentorial and suboccipital approach Transverse sinus injury
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. The ethical review process and approval by our ethics committee was not required for the present study because it is a retrospective study on patients that required a life-saving intervention. Furthermore, the research data analysis has no effect on the participants and their medical care.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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