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Intraosseous cavernous malformations of the skull: clinical characteristics and long-term surgical outcomes

Abstract

Intraosseous cavernous malformations (ICMs) of the skull are relatively rare, benign, and slow-growing tumors. Knowledge of these lesions is poor. The goals of this study were to describe the clinical manifestations, radiological features, and long-term surgical outcomes of this disease. We performed a retrospective analysis of a series of 16 cranial ICM patients who underwent surgical treatment in our hospital between 2003 and 2016. The incidence of cranial ICM was 1.15% among the entire series of intracranial and intraspinal CMs. Our cohort included 6 male and 10 female patients; their mean age at operation was 38.7 years (range, 1.9 to 63 years). Slowly growing swelling was the commonest clinical manifestation of this disease. Complete lesion resection was achieved in all but one patient, and cranioplasty was performed using titanium mesh in 11 cases. Postoperative complication was found in one patient who developed diplopia, and this symptom resolved spontaneously before discharge. The mean follow-up period after operation was 76.2 months (range, 19 to 119 months). Only the patient with petroclival ICM had some occasional headaches (mRS = 1); others were all in stable neurological status (mRS = 0). No lesion recurrence was found during the follow-up period. Although cranial ICM is rare, it should always be considered as a differential diagnosis in the case of firm, gradually enlarging skull lesions. Surgical resection should be the treatment of choice for the symptomatic patients and their long-term outcomes were excellent after gross total removal.

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Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Dr. Meng Wang for her valuable advice in proofreading.

Funding

This study was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81371292) and the “13th Five-Year Plan” National Science and Technology supporting plan (2015BAI12B04).

Author information

Correspondence to Jizong Zhao.

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Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Informed consent

All patients/legally authorized representative gave their informed consent (including consent to publish) before their inclusion to this study.

Ethical approval

This study was approved by the Research Ethics Board of Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University.

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Cite this article

Wang, C., Zhang, D., Wang, S. et al. Intraosseous cavernous malformations of the skull: clinical characteristics and long-term surgical outcomes. Neurosurg Rev 43, 231–239 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10143-018-1042-1

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Keywords

  • Cavernous malformation
  • Cranial
  • Intraosseous
  • Skull neoplasm
  • Surgical treatment