Efficacy of superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery double bypass in patients with hemorrhagic moyamoya disease: surgical effects for operated hemispheric sides
The effects of superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) double bypass on recurrent hemorrhage in the operated hemisphere in hemorrhagic moyamoya disease (HMD) have not been clearly demonstrated. This study evaluated the effectiveness of STA-MCA double bypass in the prevention of further hemorrhagic or ischemic events in the operated hemispheric sides in comparison to the conservatively treated non-operated sides. We retrospectively analyzed 52 hemispheres of 36 patients with adult-onset HMD treated with STA-MCA double bypass. Twenty and 16 patients underwent unilateral (unilateral group) and bilateral (bilateral group) surgery, respectively. In addition, the perioperative and long-term outcomes of the 52 operated sides and 20 non-operated sides in the unilateral group were compared. All bypass surgeries were successful, but 21% of the operated sides showed hyperperfusion as estimated by our methods. Perioperative mortality and morbidity rate were 0% and 5.6%, respectively. Concerning long-term follow-up, the annual rebleeding rate (ARR) in the unilateral and bilateral group was 2.7% and 2.6%/person-year, respectively (p = 0.256). The ARR in the operated and non-operated sides was 1.1% and 1.8%/side-year, respectively (p = 0.163). Two of 20 non-operated sides suffered from ischemic infarction during the follow-up period, while none of the 52 operated sides experienced ischemic events (p < 0.05). Although the long-term rebleeding rate in the operated hemisphere tended to be lower after STA-MCA double bypass compared with that in the non-operated hemisphere, the difference was not statistically significant. In conclusion, while STA-MCA double bypass could not clearly prevent rebleeding, it can prevent further ischemic attacks in patients with HMD.
KeywordsHemorrhagic moyamoya disease Middle cerebral artery Superficial temporal artery Double bypass Rebleeding
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in this study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
For this type of study, formal consent is not required.
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