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Hemorrhagic presentation of intracranial pilocytic astrocytomas: literature review

  • G. Lakshmi Prasad
  • B. N. Nandeesh
  • Girish R. Menon
Review
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Abstract

Pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) are seemingly innocuous and benign tumors. However, in recent times, many case series have documented high rates of hemorrhage in these neoplasms. We hereby provide a detailed analysis on hemorrhagic pilocytic astrocytomas (HPA) in adults and report one such case managed at our institute. In addition, salient differences between adult and pediatric hemorrhagic PA have been briefed. Hospital records were retrieved for our case. Literature review was conducted by searching online databases for the following keywords—pilocytic astrocytoma, hemorrhage, cranial, pediatric, and adults. A 22-year-old male with neurofibromatosis-1 presented with sudden onset headache and vomiting of 3-day duration. Imaging revealed a lobulated suprasellar lesion with obstructive hydrocephalus. Pterional transsylvian approach and subtotal resection were performed. Histopathology showed features of PA with bleed. Including current report, a total of 26 cases have been reported. Mean age was 37 years (21–75 years) and they are mostly found in the third decade. The male:female ratio was 2.1:1. Sudden headache with vomiting was the most common symptoms. Tumors were mostly located in cerebral hemispheres (n = 9/34.6%), hypothalamus/suprasellar region (n = 7/27%), and cerebellum (n = 6/23%). Two-thirds underwent gross total excision. There were two deaths and except one case, no recurrences were reported in those with available follow-ups. Hemorrhagic presentation of a PA is rare, although more commonly seen in adults and most commonly located in cerebral hemispheres. Maximal safe resection is the standard treatment and recurrences are rare.

Keywords

Pilocytic astrocytoma Hemorrhage Hemorrhagic onset Suprasellar Chiasmatic hypothalamic Cerebellum 

Notes

Funding

No funding was obtained for this study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

Ethical approval was felt not necessary as it was a single case operated in standard manner and a review of existing world literature was done.

Informed consent

Informed consent was taken from the patient.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Neurosurgery, Kasturba Medical CollegeManipal UniversityManipalIndia
  2. 2.Department of NeuropathologyNational Institute of Mental Health and Neuro SciencesBangaloreIndia

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