Neurosurgical Review

, Volume 36, Issue 4, pp 513–522

Solitary nonchordomatous lesions of the clival bone: differential diagnosis and current therapeutic strategies

Review

Abstract

A nonchordomatous solitary lesion of the clival bone is an exceptionally rare pathological entity, which represents a diagnostic and a therapeutic challenge. Many diseases with extremely different biological behavior, and requiring a dedicated treatment strategy, may result in similar clinical patterns. The approach to a correct differential diagnosis has to consider the specific epidemiological, radiological, and histopathological characteristics of each pathology to minimize the diagnostic bias and to allow the planning of the best treatment strategy. Because of the rarity of these diseases, a systematical review of nonchordomatous lesions of the clival bone still lack in the literature. The purposes of this study are to provide an overview of the epidemiological, clinical, radiological, and histopathological characteristics of nonchordomatous clival lesions, with particular emphasis on diagnostic and therapeutic strategies and related clinical outcome.

Keywords

Clivus Nonchordomatous lesions Skull base tumors 

References

  1. 1.
    Adada B, Al-Mefty O (2003) Fibrous dysplasia of the clivus. Neurosurgery 52(2):318–322, discussion 323PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    al-Mefty O, Anand VK (1990) Zygomatic approach to skull-base lesions. J Neurosurg 73(5):668–673. doi:10.3171/jns.1990.73.5.0668 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alessi G, Lemmerling M, Vereecken L, De Waele L (2003) Benign metastasizing leiomyoma to skull base and spine: a report of two cases. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 105(3):170–174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Altman KW, Mirza N, Philippe L (1997) Metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma to the paranasal sinuses: a case report and review. J Laryngol Otol 111(7):647–651PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ameli NO, Abbassioun K, Azod A, Saleh H (1984) Aneurysmal bone cyst of the skull. Can J Neurol Sci 11(4):466–471PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Anand VK, Osborne CM, Harkey HL 3rd (1993) Infiltrative clival pituitary adenoma of ectopic origin. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 108(2):178–183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Aouad RK, Dagher WI, Shikani AH (2008) Neurenteric cyst of the clivus. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 139(6):863–864. doi:10.1016/j.otohns.2008.08.027 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Appel JG, Bergsneider M, Vinters H, Salamon N, Wang MB, Heaney AP (2011) Acromegaly due to an ectopic pituitary adenoma in the clivus: case report and review of literature. Pituitary. doi:10.1007/s11102-011-0345-9 Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Arnesen M, Scheithauer BW (1994) Aggressive small cell tumor of the skull base. Ultrastruct Pathol 18(1–2):191–197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Balasingam V, Anderson GJ, Gross ND, Cheng CM, Noguchi A, Dogan A, McMenomey SO, Delashaw JB Jr, Andersen PE (2006) Anatomical analysis of transoral surgical approaches to the clivus. J Neurosurg 105(2):301–308. doi:10.3171/jns.2006.105.2.301 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ballaux D, Verhelst J, Pickut B, De Deyn PP, Mahler C (1999) Ectopic macroprolactinoma mimicking a chordoma: a case report. Endocr Relat Cancer 6(1):117–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Barnes L (1991) Pathobiology of selected tumors of the base of the skull. Skull Base Surg 1(4):207–216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bavetta S, El-Shunnar K, Hamlyn PJ (1996) Neurenteric cyst of the anterior cranial fossa. Br J Neurosurg 10(2):225–227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Belov AI, Gol'bin DA (2006) Intracranial plasmocytomas: biology, diagnosis, and treatment. Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko 3:43–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bertoni F, Bacchini P, Fabbri N, Mercuri M, Picci P, Ruggieri P, Campanacci M (1993) Osteosarcoma. Low-grade intraosseous-type osteosarcoma, histologically resembling parosteal osteosarcoma, fibrous dysplasia, and desmoplastic fibroma. Cancer 71(2):338–345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bindal AK, Bindal RK, van Loveren H, Sawaya R (1995) Management of intracranial plasmacytoma. J Neurosurg 83(2):218–221. doi:10.3171/jns.1995.83.2.0218 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Boari N, Roberti F, Biglioli F, Caputy AJ, Mortini P (2010) Quantification of clival and paraclival exposure in the Le Fort I transmaxillary transpterygoid approach: a microanatomical study. J Neurosurg 113(5):1011–1018. doi:10.3171/2010.4.JNS091887 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bourne RR, Maclaren RE (1998) Intracranial plasmacytoma masquerading as Gradenigo’s syndrome. Br J Ophthalmol 82(4):458–459PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Brannan SO, Matthews BN, Savant V, Brown RD, Matthews TD (2003) Solitary intracranial extra-osseous plasmacytoma presenting with ophthalmic signs. J Neuroophthalmol 23(4):268–271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Brisman JL, Feldstein NA, Tarbell NJ, Cohen D, Cargan AL, Haddad J Jr, Bruce JN (1997) Eosinophilic granuloma of the clivus: case report, follow-up of two previously reported cases, and review of the literature on cranial base eosinophilic granuloma. Neurosurgery 41(1):273–278, discussion 278–279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Buyuklu F, Tarhan E, Cakmak O, Ozgirgin N, Arikan U (2005) Isolated fibrous dysplasia of the sphenoid sinus. Rhinology 43(4):309–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cao X, Luan S, Sun L, Yang B, Shen C, Bao W (2010) Impaired vision associated with a solitary intracranial plasmacytoma. J Clin Neurosci 17(9):1215–1217. doi:10.1016/j.jocn.2009.12.023 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Capanna R, Bettelli G, Biagini R, Ruggieri P, Bertoni F, Campanacci M (1985) Aneurysmal cysts of long bones. Ital J Orthop Traumatol 11(4):409–417PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Castro JR, Linstadt DE, Bahary JP, Petti PL, Daftari I, Collier JM, Gutin PH, Gauger G, Phillips TL (1994) Experience in charged particle irradiation of tumors of the skull base: 1977–1992. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 29(4):647–655PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cavallo LM, Cappabianca P, Messina A, Esposito F, Stella L, de Divitiis E, Tschabitscher M (2007) The extended endoscopic endonasal approach to the clivus and cranio-vertebral junction: anatomical study. Childs Nerv Syst 23(6):665–671. doi:10.1007/s00381-007-0332-7 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cerase A, Tarantino A, Gozzetti A, Muccio CF, Gennari P, Monti L, Di Blasi A, Venturi C (2008) Intracranial involvement in plasmacytomas and multiple myeloma: a pictorial essay. Neuroradiology 50(8):665–674. doi:10.1007/s00234-008-0390-x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chaljub G, Van Fleet R, Guinto FC Jr, Crow WN, Martinez L, Kumar R (1992) MR imaging of clival and paraclival lesions. AJR Am J Roentgenol 159(5):1069–1074PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Chennupati SK, Norris R, Dunham B, Kazahaya K (2008) Osteosarcoma of the skull base: case report and review of literature. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 72(1):115–119. doi:10.1016/j.ijporl.2007.08.015 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Child JA, Morgan GJ, Davies FE, Owen RG, Bell SE, Hawkins K, Brown J, Drayson MT, Selby PJ (2003) High-dose chemotherapy with hematopoietic stem-cell rescue for multiple myeloma. N Engl J Med 348(19):1875–1883. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa022340 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dahlin DC, Johnson EW Jr (1954) Giant osteoid osteoma. J Bone Joint Surg Am 36-A(3):559–572PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    de Divitiis O, Conti A, Angileri FF, Cardali S, La Torre D, Tschabitscher M (2004) Endoscopic transoral-transclival approach to the brainstem and surrounding cisternal space: anatomic study. Neurosurgery 54(1):125–130, discussion 130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Di Lorenzo N, Palatinsky E, Bardella L, Maleci A (1987) Benign osteoblastoma of the clivus removed by a transoral approach: case report. Neurosurgery 20(1):52–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Di Lorenzo N, Spallone A, Nolletti A, Nardi P (1980) Giant cell tumors of the spine: a clinical study of six cases, with emphasis on the radiological features, treatment, and follow-up. Neurosurgery 6(1):29–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Eisig SB, Feghali J, Hall C, Goodrich JT (2000) The 2-piece Le Fort I osteotomy for cranial base access: an evaluation of nine patients. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 58(5):482–486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ellis JH, Siegel CL, Martel W, Weatherbee L, Dorfman H (1988) Radiologic features of well-differentiated osteosarcoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol 151(4):739–742PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Fisch U (1983) The infratemporal fossa approach for nasopharyngeal tumors. Laryngoscope 93(1):36–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fon G, Sage MR (1979) Osteochondroma of the clivus. Australas Radiol 23(1):46–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gagliardi F, Boari N, Mortini P (2011) Reconstruction techniques in skull base surgery. J Craniofac Surg 22(3):1015–1020. doi:10.1097/SCS.0b013e31821015b5 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gagliardi F, Boari N, Riva P, Mortini P (2012) Current therapeutic options and novel molecular markers in skull base chordomas. Neurosurg Rev 35(1):1–13, discussion 13–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gagliardi F, Boari N, Roberti F, Gragnaniello C, Biglioli F, Caputy AJ, Mortini P (2012) Extradural subtemporal transzygomatic approach to the clival and paraclival region with endoscopic assist. J Craniofac Surg 23(5):1468–1475. doi:10.1097/SCS.0b013e31825a6497 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gavrilovic IT, Posner JB (2005) Brain metastases: epidemiology and pathophysiology. J Neurooncol 75(1):5–14. doi:10.1007/s11060-004-8093-6 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Giddings CE, Bray D, Stapleton S, Daya H (2005) Aneurysmal bone cyst of the spine. J Laryngol Otol 119(6):495–497. doi:10.1258/0022215054273052 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Gladden ML Jr, Gillingham BL, Hennrikus W, Vaughan LM (2000) Aneurysmal bone cyst of the first cervical vertebrae in a child treated with percutaneous intralesional injection of calcitonin and methylprednisolone. A case report. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 25(4):527–530, discussion 531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Goel A, Bhayani R, Nagpal RD (1994) Massive benign osteoblastoma of the clivus and atlas. Br J Neurosurg 8(4):483–486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Graziani N, Dufour H, Figarella-Branger D, Donnet A, Bouillot P, Grisoli F (1995) Do the suprasellar neurenteric cyst, the Rathke cleft cyst and the colloid cyst constitute a same entity? Acta Neurochir (Wien) 133(3–4):174–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Guerrero CA, Krayenbuhl N, Husain M, Krisht AF (2007) Ectopic suprasellar growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma: case report. Neurosurgery 61(4):E879. doi:10.1227/01.NEU.0000298921.47495.42, discussion E879PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Guinto-Balanzar G, Abdo-Toro M, Arechiga-Ramos N, Leal-Ortega R, Zepeda-Fernandez E, Nambo-Lucio Mde J (2012) Plasma cell tumor of the clivus: report of two cases. Cir Cir 80(2):171–176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Harris AE, Beckner ME, Barnes L, Kassam A, Horowitz M (2004) Giant cell tumor of the skull: a case report and review of the literature. Surg Neurol 61(3):274–277. doi:10.1016/S0090-3019(03)00428-2 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hayashi Y, Tachibana O, Muramatsu N, Tsuchiya H, Tada M, Arakawa Y, Suzuki M, Yamashita J (1999) Rathke cleft cyst: MR and biomedical analysis of cyst content. J Comput Assist Tomogr 23(1):34–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Iseri PK, Efendi H, Demirci A, Komsuoglu S (2005) Fibrous dysplasia of the cranial bones: a case report and review of the literature. Yale J Biol Med 78(3):141–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Itshayek E, Spector S, Gomori M, Segal R (2002) Fibrous dysplasia in combination with aneurysmal bone cyst of the occipital bone and the clivus: case report and review of the literature. Neurosurgery 51(3):815–817, discussion 817–818PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kapoor V, Johnson DR, Fukui MB, Rothfus WE, Jho HD (2002) Neuroradiologic–pathologic correlation in a neurenteric cyst of the clivus. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 23(3):476–479PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kassam AB, Gardner P, Snyderman C, Mintz A, Carrau R (2005) Expanded endonasal approach: fully endoscopic, completely transnasal approach to the middle third of the clivus, petrous bone, middle cranial fossa, and infratemporal fossa. Neurosurg Focus 19(1):E6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Khanam H, Lipper MH, Wolff CL, Lopes MB (2001) Calvarial hemangiomas: report of two cases and review of the literature. Surg Neurol 55(1):63–67, discussion 67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kim E (2010) Fibrous dysplasia of the clivus. J Korean Neurosurg Soc 48(5):441–444. doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.48.5.441 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kondziolka D, Lunsford LD, Flickinger JC (1991) The role of radiosurgery in the management of chordoma and chondrosarcoma of the cranial base. Neurosurgery 29(1):38–45, discussion 45–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kurt AM, Unni KK, McLeod RA, Pritchard DJ (1990) Low-grade intraosseous osteosarcoma. Cancer 65(6):1418–1428PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Laigle-Donadey F, Taillibert S, Martin-Duverneuil N, Hildebrand J, Delattre JY (2005) Skull-base metastases. J Neurooncol 75(1):63–69. doi:10.1007/s11060-004-8099-0 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Lakhdar F, Arkha Y, Derraz S, Ouahabi AE, Khamlichi AE (2012) Solitary intrasellar plasmocytoma revealed by a diplopia: a case report. Neurochirurgie 58(1):37–39. doi:10.1016/j.neuchi.2011.09.002 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Lin SP, Fang YC, Chu DC, Chang YC, Hsu CI (2007) Characteristics of cranial aneurysmal bone cyst on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. J Formos Med Assoc 106(3):255–259. doi:10.1016/S0929-6646(09)60249-7 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Liu ZY, Qi XQ, Wu XJ, Luo C, Lu YC (2010) Solitary intracranial plasmacytoma located in the spheno-clival region mimicking chordoma: a case report. J Int Med Res 38(5):1868–1875PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Lloyd RV, Chandler WF, Kovacs K, Ryan N (1986) Ectopic pituitary adenomas with normal anterior pituitary glands. Am J Surg Pathol 10(8):546–552PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Losa M, Terreni MR, Tresoldi M, Marcatti M, Campi A, Triulzi F, Scotti G, Giovanelli M (1992) Solitary plasmacytoma of the sphenoid sinus involving the pituitary fossa: a case report and review of the literature. Surg Neurol 37(5):388–393PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Machida K, Makita K, Nishikawa J, Ohtake T, Iio M (1986) Scintigraphic manifestation of fibrous dysplasia. Clin Nucl Med 11(6):426–429PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Malcolm GP, Symon L, Kendall B, Pires M (1991) Intracranial neurenteric cysts. Report of two cases. J Neurosurg 75(1):115–120. doi:10.3171/jns.1991.75.1.0115 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Martins AN, Dean DF (1974) Giant cell tumor of sphenoid bone: malignant transformation following radiotherapy. Surg Neurol 2(2):105–107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Matsumura A, Meguro K, Doi M, Tsurushima H, Tomono Y (1990) Suprasellar ectopic pituitary adenoma: case report and review of the literature. Neurosurgery 26(4):681–685PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    McDermott RS, Anderson PR, Greenberg RE, Milestone BN, Hudes GR (2004) Cranial nerve deficits in patients with metastatic prostate carcinoma: clinical features and treatment outcomes. Cancer 101(7):1639–1643. doi:10.1002/cncr.20553 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    McDonald PJ, Matouk CC, Papsin B, Rutka JT (2003) Clival osteoblastoma in a child. Case illustration. J Neurosurg 98(5):1133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    McLeod RA, Dahlin DC, Beabout JW (1976) The spectrum of osteoblastoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol 126(2):321–325PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Mitsos A, Georgakoulias N, Jenkins A (2004) Intracranial plasmacytoma presenting as chronic subdural haematoma. Br J Neurosurg 18(6):647–649PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Miyachi S, Negoro M, Saito K, Nehashi K, Sugita K (1990) Myeloma manifesting as a large jugular tumor: case report. Neurosurgery 27(6):971–977PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Mohit AA, Eskridge J, Ellenbogen R, Shaffrey CI (2004) Aneurysmal bone cyst of the atlas: successful treatment through selective arterial embolization: case report. Neurosurgery 55(4):982PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Moravan MJ, Petraglia AL, Almast J, Yeaney GA, Miller MC, Edward Vates G (2012) Intraosseous hemangioma of the clivus: a case report and review of the literature. J Neurosurg Sci 56(3):255–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Mount SL, Taatjes DJ, Trainer TD (1993) Ultrastructural study of a pituitary adenoma (prolactinoma) within the clivus bone using immunoelectron microscopy. Ultrastruct Pathol 17(6):637–642PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Mudd PA, Hohensee S, Lillehei KO, Kingdom TT, Kleinschmidt-Demasters BK (2012) Ectopic pituitary adenoma of the clivus presenting with apoplexy: case report and review of the literature. Clin Neuropathol 31(1):24–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Okamoto S, Kurimoto M, Hirashima Y, Hayashi N, Kuwayama N, Endo S, Okada E, Ishizawa S (2001) Systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma initially presented with visual disturbance due to intrasellar lymphoma—a case report. No Shinkei Geka 29(1):59–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Ortiz-Suarez H, Erickson DL (1975) Pituitary adenomas of adolescents. J Neurosurg 43(4):437–439. doi:10.3171/jns.1975.43.4.0437 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Pallini R, Maira G, Pierconti F, Falchetti ML, Alvino E, Cimino-Reale G, Fernandez E, D'Ambrosio E, Larocca LM (2003) Chordoma of the skull base: predictors of tumor recurrence. J Neurosurg 98(4):812–822. doi:10.3171/jns.2003.98.4.0812 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Pallini R, Sabatino G, Doglietto F, Lauretti L, Fernandez E, Maira G (2009) Clivus metastases: report of seven patients and literature review. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 151(4):291–296. doi:10.1007/s00701-009-0229-1, discussion 296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Park YK, Yang MH, Choi WS, Lim YJ (1995) Well-differentiated, low-grade osteosarcoma of the clivus. Skeletal Radiol 24(5):386–388PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Rajput D, Tungaria A, Jaiswal A, Jain V (2012) Aneurysmal bone cyst of clivus and C1 C2: case report and review of literature. Turk Neurosurg 22(1):105–108. doi:10.5137/1019-5149.JTN.3051-10.1 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Rapidis AD, Archondakis G, Anteriotis D, Skouteris CA (1997) Chondrosarcomas of the skull base: review of the literature and report of two cases. J Craniomaxillofac Surg 25(6):322–327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Rawlings CE 3rd, Wilkins RH (1984) Solitary eosinophilic granuloma of the skull. Neurosurgery 15(2):155–161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Roche PH, Mercier P, Fournier HD (2007) Temporopolar epidural transcavernous transpetrous approach. Technique and indications. Neurochirurgie 53(1):23–31. doi:10.1016/j.neuchi.2006.10.002 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Rosahl SK, Erpenbeck V, Vorkapic P, Samii M (2000) Solitary follicular thyroid carcinoma of the skull base and its differentiation from ectopic adenoma—review, use of galectin-3 and report of a new case. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 102(3):149–155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Rosenfeld JV, Wallace D, Klug GL, Danks A (1992) Transnasal stereotactic biopsy of a clivus tumor. Technical note. J Neurosurg 76(5):878–879. doi:10.3171/jns.1992.76.5.0878 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Sampson JH, Rossitch E Jr, Young JN, Lane KL, Friedman AH (1992) Solitary eosinophilic granuloma invading the clivus of an adult: case report. Neurosurgery 31(4):755–757, discussion 757–758PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Sasagawa Y, Tachibana O, Shiraga S, Takata H, Kinoshita E, Nojima T, Iizuka H (2012) Secondary malignant giant cell tumor of the clivus: case report. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 114(6):786–788. doi:10.1016/j.clineuro.2011.12.041 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Schajowicz F, Lemos C (1970) Osteoid osteoma and osteoblastoma. Closely related entities of osteoblastic derivation. Acta Orthop Scand 41(3):272–291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Sekhar LN, Schramm VL Jr, Jones NF (1987) Subtemporal-preauricular infratemporal fossa approach to large lateral and posterior cranial base neoplasms. J Neurosurg 67(4):488–499. doi:10.3171/jns.1987.67.4.0488 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Shenker Y, RV LL, Weatherbee L, Port FK, Port RJ, Barkan AL (1986) Ectopic prolactinoma in a patient with hyperparathyroidism and abnormal sellar radiography. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 62(5):1065–1069PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Simon JA, Olan WJ, Santi M (1997) Intracranial neurenteric cysts: a differential diagnosis and review. Radiographics 17(6):1587–1593PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Sirvanci M, Karaman K, Onat L, Duran C, Ulusoy OL (2002) Monostotic fibrous dysplasia of the clivus: MRI and CT findings. Neuroradiology 44(10):847–850. doi:10.1007/s00234-002-0833-8 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Som PM, Schatz CJ, Flaum EG, Lanman TH (1991) Aneurysmal bone cyst of the paranasal sinuses associated with fibrous dysplasia: CT and MR findings. J Comput Assist Tomogr 15(3):513–515PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Stapleton SR, Wilkins PR, Archer DJ, Uttley D (1993) Chondrosarcoma of the skull base: a series of eight cases. Neurosurgery 32(3):348–355, discussion 355–346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Stull MA, Kransdorf MJ, Devaney KO (1992) Langerhans cell histiocytosis of bone. Radiographics 12(4):801–823PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Tanaka M, Shibui S, Nomura K, Nakanishi Y (1998) Solitary plasmacytoma of the skull: a case report. Jpn J Clin Oncol 28(10):626–630PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Tien RD (1992) Fat-suppression MR imaging in neuroradiology: techniques and clinical application. AJR Am J Roentgenol 158(2):369–379PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Tovi F, Hirsch M, Sacks M, Leiberman A (1990) Ectopic pituitary adenoma of the sphenoid sinus: report of a case and review of the literature. Head Neck 12(3):264–268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Tsai VW, Rybak L, Espinosa J, Kuhn MJ, Kamel OW, Mathews F, Glatz FR (2002) Primary B cell lymphoma of the clivus: case report. Surg Neurol 58(3–4):246–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Tucker A, Miyake H, Tsuji M, Ukita T, Ito S, Matsuda N, Ohmura T (2010) Neurenteric cyst of the lower clivus. Neurosurgery 66(1):E224–E225. doi:10.1227/01.NEU.0000361998.93841.C3 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Uttley D, Archer DJ, Marsh HT, Bell BA (1991) Improved access to lesions of the central skull base by mobilization of the zygoma: experience with 54 cases. Neurosurgery 28(1):103–104, discussion 103–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Uttley D, Moore A, Archer DJ (1989) Surgical management of midline skull-base tumors: a new approach. J Neurosurg 71(5 Pt 1):705–710. doi:10.3171/jns.1989.71.5.0705 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Valentini V, Nicolai G, Lore B, Aboh IV (2008) Intraosseous hemangiomas. J Craniofac Surg 19(6):1459–1464. doi:10.1097/SCS.0b013e318188a030 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Vanhoenacker FM, De Praeter G, Kools D, Voormolen M, Parizel PM (2011) Unusual lesion of the clivus: diagnosis and discussion. Skeletal Radiol 40(2):243–244. doi:10.1007/s00256-010-0981-6, 223–244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Volpe NJ, Liebsch NJ, Munzenrider JE, Lessell S (1993) Neuro-ophthalmologic findings in chordoma and chondrosarcoma of the skull base. Am J Ophthalmol 115(1):97–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Wang L, Zhang J, Wu Z, Jia G, Zhang L, Hao S, Geng S (2011) Diagnosis and management of adult intracranial neurenteric cysts. Neurosurgery 68(1):44–52. doi:10.1227/NEU.0b013e3181fc5ee0, discussion 52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Weber AL, Brown EW, Hug EB, Liebsch NJ (1995) Cartilaginous tumors and chordomas of the cranial base. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 28(3):453–471PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Wei YT, Jiang S, Cen Y (2010) Fibrous dysplasia of skull. J Craniofac Surg 21(2):538–542. doi:10.1097/SCS.0b013e3181d0243f PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Williams WG, Lo LJ, Chen YR (1998) The Le Fort I-palatal split approach for skull base tumors: efficacy, complications, and outcome. Plast Reconstr Surg 102(7):2310–2319PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Wolfe JT 3rd, Scheithauer BW, Dahlin DC (1983) Giant-cell tumor of the sphenoid bone. Review of 10 cases. J Neurosurg 59(2):322–327. doi:10.3171/jns.1983.59.2.0322 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Wong ET, Lu XQ, Devulapalli J, Mahadevan A (2006) Cyberknife radiosurgery for basal skull plasmacytoma. J Neuroimaging 16(4):361–363. doi:10.1111/j.1552-6569.2006.00062.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Yuen A, Jacobs C (1999) Lymphomas of the head and neck. Semin Oncol 26(3):338–345PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Filippo Gagliardi
    • 1
  • Nicola Boari
    • 1
  • Pietro Mortini
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Neurosurgery and Gamma Knife Radiosurgery, San Raffaele Scientific InstituteVita-Salute UniversityMilanItaly

Personalised recommendations