Neurosurgical Review

, Volume 28, Issue 3, pp 169–176 | Cite as

Adult Chiari malformation and sleep apnoea

  • Ricardo Vieira Botelho
  • Lia Rita Azeredo Bittencourt
  • José Marcus Rotta
  • Sérgio Tufik
Review

Abstract

Chiari malformation (CM) is primarily characterised by herniation of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum. Clinically, two main types of CM represent the vast majority of cases: type I (in adults) and type II (in infants). CM may result in neuronal impairment of the brainstem, upper spinal cord and cranial nerves. Part of the afferent and efferet systems and the central respiratory controlling system are located in the cranium-cervical transition and may be damaged in these pathologies, leading to respiratory disorders, such as respiratory failure and death. The ventilatory responses to exogenous and endogenous stimuli, such as responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia, are usually diminished, and apnea may be manifested and detected during sleep, allowing for the diagnosis. This study is a review of the relationship between sleep apnoea and adult CM.

Keywords

Chiari malformation Basilar invagination Syringomyelia Sleep apnoea 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ricardo Vieira Botelho
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Lia Rita Azeredo Bittencourt
    • 1
  • José Marcus Rotta
    • 2
  • Sérgio Tufik
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de PsicobiologiaUniversidade Federal de São PauloSao PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Serviço de Neurocirurgia do Hospital do Servidor Publico do Estado de São PauloSao PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Indianópolis-Sao Paulo-CapitalBrazil

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