Neurosurgical Review

, Volume 28, Issue 4, pp 298–302

The antioxidant effect of β-Glucan on oxidative stress status in experimental spinal cord injury in rats

  • Hakan Kayali
  • M. Fatih Ozdag
  • Serdar Kahraman
  • Ahmet Aydin
  • Engin Gonul
  • Ahmet Sayal
  • Zeki Odabasi
  • Erdener Timurkaynak
Original Article


This study was performed to investigate the antioxidant effect of β-Glucan in experimental spinal cord injury (SCI). Injury was produced using weight-drop technique in rats. β-Glucan was given by intraperitoneal injection following trauma. The rats were sacrificed at the sixth day of injury. Oxidative stress status was assessed by measuring the spinal cord tissue content of Malonyldialdehyde (MDA), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Gluthatione Peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities. No effect of β-Glucan on SOD and MDA activities was found but, GSH-Px levels were found to decrease to the baseline (preinjury) levels when it was compared to untreated group (U=0.000; p=0.002). According to our results, β-Glucan works like a scavenger and has an antioxidant effect on lipid peroxidation in spinal cord injury.


β-Glucan Spinal cord injury Lipid peroxidation 


  1. 1.
    Anderson DK, Means ED, Waters TR, Spears CJ (1980) Spinal cord energy metabolism following compression trauma to the feline spinal cord. J Neurosurg 53:375–380PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anderson DK, Demediuk P (1985) Spinal cord injury and protection. Ann Emerg Med 14:816–821PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anderson DK, Hall ED (1993) Pathophysiology of spinal cord trauma. Ann Emerg Med 22:987–992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Anderson DK, Dugan LL, Means ED, Horrocks LA (1994) Methylprednisolone and membrane properties of primary cultures of mouse spinal cord. Brain Res 637:119–125CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Anthes D, Theriault E, Tator CH (1996) Ultrastructural evidence for arteriolar vasospasm after spinal cord trauma. Neurosurgery 39:804–814CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Arendt J (1988) Melatonin. Clin Endocrinol 29:205–229Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Aydin A, Orhan H, Sayal A, Ozata M, Sahin G, Isimer A (2001) Oxidative stress and nitric oxide related parameters in type II diabetes mellitus. Effects of gylisemic control. Clin Biochem 34:65–70CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Babincova M, Machova E, Kogan G (1999) Carboxymethylated glucan inhibits lipid peroxidation in liposomes. Z Naturforsch 54c:1084–1088Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Babineau TJ, Hackford A, Kenler A, Bistrian B, Forse RA, Fairchild PG, Heard S, Keroack M, Caushaj P, Benotti P (1994) A phase II multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of three dosages of an immunomodulator (pgg-glucan) in high-risk surgical patients. Arch Surg 129:1204–1210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Babineau TJ, Marcello P, Swails W, Kenler A, Bistrian B, Forse RA (1994) Randomized phase I/II trial of a macrophage-specific immunumodulator (PGG-glucan) in high-risk surgical patients. Ann Surg 220:601–609PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Barut S, Canbolat A, Bilge T, Aydin Y, Cokneseli B, Kaya U (1993) Lipid peroxidation in experimental spinal cord injury: time–level relationship. Neurosurg Rev 16:53–59CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Baysefer A, Erdogan E, Kahraman S, Izci Y, Korkmaz C, Solmaz I, Ulas UH, Ozogul C, Timurkaynak E (2003) Effect of mannitol in experimental spinal cord injury: an ultrastructural and electrophysiological study. Neurol India 51:350–354PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Benzel EC, Tator CH (1995) Contemporary management of spinal cord injury. American Association of Neurological Surgeons, Park Ridge, IL, pp 27–41Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bignami A (1991) Glial cells in the central nervous system. Discuss Neurosci 111:9–44Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Black P, Markowitz RS, Keller S (1986) Naloxane and experimental cord injury, part 2: megadose treatment in a dynamic load injury model. Neurosurgery 19:909–913PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bracken MB, Shepard MJ, Hellenbrand KG, Collins WF, Leo LS, Freeman DF, Wagner FC, Flamm ES, Eisenberg HM, Goodman JH (1985) Methylprednisolone and neurological function 1 year after spinal cord injury. Results of national acute spinal cord injury study. J Neurosurg 63:704–713PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bracken MB, Shepard MJ, Collins WF, Holford TR, Young W, Baskin DS, Eisenberg HM, Flamm E, Leo-Summers L, Maroon J (1990) A randomized, controlled trial of methylprednisolone or naloxone in the treatment of acute spinal cord injury. Results of the second national acute spinal cord injury study. N Engl J Med 322:1405–1411PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bracken MB, Shepard MJ, Collins WF Jr, Holford TR, Baskin DS, Eisenberg HM, Flamm E, Leo-Summers L, Maroon JC, Marshall LF (1992) Methylprednisolone or naloxone treatment after acute spinal cord injury: 1-year follow-up data. Results of the second national acute spinal cord injury study. J Neurosurg 76:23–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Braughler JM, Hall ED (1982) Correlation of methylprednisolone levels in cat spinal cord with its effects on (Na++K+)-ATPase, lipid peroxidation, and alpha motor neuron function. J Neurosurg 56:838–844PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Braughler JM, Hall ED (1983) Uptake and elimination of methylprednisolone from contused cat spinal cord following intravenous injection of the sodium succinate ester. J Neurosurg 58:538–542PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Braughler JM, Hall ED (1983) Lactate and pyruvate metabolism in the injured cat spinal cord before and after single large intravenous dose of methylprednisolone. J Neurosurg 59:256–261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Braughler JM, Hall ED (1985) Current application of “high dose” steroid therapy for CNS injury. A pharmacological perspective. J Neurosurg 62:806–810PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Browder W, Williams D, Sherwood E, McNamee R, Jones E, DiLuzio N (1987) Synergistic effect of nonspecific immunostimulation and antibiotics in experimental peritonitis. Surgery 102:206–214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Browder W, Williams D, Pretus H, Olivero G, Enrichens F, Mao P, Franchello A (1990) Beneficial effect of enhanced macrophage function in the trauma patient. Ann Surg 211:605–613PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Czop JK, Valiante NM, Janusz MJ (1989) Phagocytosis of particulate activators of the human alternative complement pathway through monocyte beta-glucan receptors. Prog Clin Biol Res 297:287–296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Demediuk P, Saunders RD, Clendenon NR, Means ED, Anderson DK, Horrocks LA (1985) Changes in lipid metabolism in traumatized spinal cord. Prog Brain Res 63:1–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ducker TB, Kindt GW, Kempe LG (1971) Pathological findings in acute experimental spinal cord trauma. J Neurosurg 35:700–708PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Faden AI (1987) Pharmacology in spinal cord injury: a critical review of recent developments. Clin Neuropharmacol 10:193–204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fercakova A, Halat G, Marsala M, Lukacova N, Marsala J (1992) Graded postischemic reoxigenation reduces lipid peroxidation and reperfusion injury in the rabbit spinal cord. Brain Res 593:159–167CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ferrari R, Ceconi C, Curello S, Cargoni A (1991) Oxygen free radicals and myocardial damage: protective role of thiol-containing agents. Am J Med 91(Suppl 3C):955–1055CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Fitch MT, Silver J (1997) Activated macrophages and the blood–brain barrier: inflammation after CNS injury leads to increases in putative inhibitory molecules. Exp Neurol 148:587–603CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Fujimoto T, Nakamura T, Ikeda T, Taoka Y, Takagi K (2000) Effects of EPC-K1 on lipid peroxidation in experimental spinal cord injury. Spine 25:24–29CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Giulian D, Chen J, Ingeman JE, George JK, Noponen M (1989) The role of mononuclear phagocytes in wound healing after traumatic injury to adult mammalian brain. J Neurosci 9:4416–4429PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hall ED, Braughler M (1982) Effects of intravenous methylprednisolone on spinal cord lipid peroxidation and (Na++K+)ATPase activity. Dose-response analysis during 1st hour after contusion injury in the cat. J Neurosurg 57:247–253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hall ED (1988) Effects of the 21-aminosteroid U74006F on posttraumatic spinal cord ischemia in cats. J Neurosurg 68:462–465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hall ED (1992) The neuroprotective pharmacology of methylpredisolone. J Neurosurg 76:13–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hall ED (1993) Lipid antioxidants in acute central nervous system injury. Ann Emerg Med 22:1022–1027PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Halliwell B, Gutteridge JM (1986) Oxygen free radicals and iron in relation to biology and medicine: some problems and concepts. Arch Biochem Biophys 246:501–514CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hong F, Yan J, Baran JT, Allendorf DJ, Hansen RD, Ostroff GR, Xing PX, Cheung NK, Ross GD (2004) Mechanism by which orally administered beta-1,3-glucans enhance the tumoricidal activity of antitumor monoclonal antibodies in murine tumor models. J Immunol 173:797–806PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ildan F, Polat S, Öner A, Isbir T, Gocer AI, Tap O, Kaya M, Karadayi A (1995) Effects of naloxane on sodium- and potassium-activated and magnesium-dependent adenosine 5′-triphosphatase activity and lipid peroxidation and early ultrastructural findings after experimental spinal cord injury. Neurosurgery 36:797–805PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kaptanoglu E, Caner HH, Surucu HS, Akbiyik F (1999) Effects of mexiletine on lipid peroxidation and early ultrastructural findings in experimental spinal cord injury. J Neurosurg (Spine) 91:200–204Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kaptanoglu E, Tuncel M, Palaoglu S, Konan A, Demirpence E, Kilinc K (2000) Comparison of the effects of melatonin and methylprednisolone in experimental spinal cord injury. J Neurosurg (Spine) 93:77–84Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Konat GW, Wiggins RC (1985) Effect of reactive oxygen species on myelin membrane proteins. J Neurochem 45:1113–1118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Li GL, Brodin G, Farooque M, Funa K, Holtz A, Wang WL, Olsson Y (1996) Apoptosis and expression of bcl-2 after compression trauma to rat spinal cord. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 55:280–289PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lipton S, Rosenberg P (1994) Excitatory amino acids as a final common pathway for neurologic disorders. N Engl J Med 330:613–622CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Norenberg MD (1994) Astrocyte responses to CNS injury. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 53:213–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Onderdonk AB, Cisneros RL, Hinkson P, Ostroff G (1992) Anti-infective effect of poly-β1-6-glucotrosyl-β1-3-glucopyranose glucan in vivo. Infect Immun 60:1642–1647PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Patchen ML, D’Alesandro MM, Brook I, Blakely WF, MacVittie TJ (1987) Glucan: mechanisms involved in its “radioprotective” effect. J Leuk Biol 42:95–105Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Rawe SE, Lee WA, Perot PL (1981) Spinal cord glucose utilization after experimental spinal cord injury Neurosurgery 9:40–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Reiter RJ, Poeggeler B, Tan DX (1993) Antioxidant capacity of melatonin: a novel action not requiring receptor. Neuroendocrinol Lett 15:103–116Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Saruhashi Y, Matsusue Y, Hukuda S (2002) Effects of seratonin 1A agonist on acute spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 40:519–523CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Saunders RD, Dugan LL, Demediuk P, Means ED, Horrocks LA, Anderson DK (1987) Effects of methylprednisolone and the combination of alpha-tocopherol and selenium on arachidonic acid metabolism and lipid peroxidation in traumatized spinal cord tissue. J Neurochem 49:24–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Savitz SI, Rosenbaum DM (1988) Apoptosis in neurological disease. Neurosurgery 42:555–574Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Süzer T, Coskun E, Islekel H, Tahta K (1999) Neuroprotective effect of magnesium on lipid peroxidation and axonal function after experimental spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 37:480–484CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Tasdemir O, Katircioglu F, Küçükaksu S, Gol K, Hayran M, Keceligil T, Ibrisim E, Bayazit K (1993) Warm blood cardioplegia: ultrastructural and hemodynamic study. Ann Thorac Surg 56:305–311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Tator CH, Fehlings MG (1991) Review of the secondary injury theory of acute spinal cord trauma with emphasis on vascular mechanisms. J Neurosurg 75:15–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Tator CH (1995) Update on the pathophysiology and pathology of acute spinal cord injury. Brain Pathol 5:407–413PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Tator CH (1996) Pathophysiology and pathology of spinal cord injury. In: Wilkins RH, Rengachary SS (eds) Neurosurgery, 2nd edn. McGraw Hill, New York, pp 2859–2874Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Topsakal C, Erol FS, Ozveren MF, Yilmaz N, Ilhan N (2002) Effects of methylprednisolone and dextromethorphan on lipid peroxidation in an experimental model of spinal cord injury. Neurosurg Rev 25:258–266CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Tsiapali E, Whaley S, Kalbfleisch J, Ensley HE, Browder IW, Williams DL (2001) Glucans exhibit weak antioxidant activity, but stimulate macrophage free radical activity. Free Radic Biol Med 30:393–402CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Tzianabos AO, Kasper DL, Cisneros RL, Smith RS, Onderdonk AB (1995) Polysaccaride-mediated protection against abscess formation in experimental intra-abdominal sepsis. J Clin Invest 96:2727–2731PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ulakoglu EZ, Saygi A, Gumustas MK, Zor E, Oztek I, Kokoglu E (1998) Alterations in superoxide dismutase activities, lipid peroxidation and gluthathione levels in thinner-inhaled rat lungs relationship between histopathological properties. Pharmacol Res 38:209–214CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Williams DL, Browder IW, DiLuzio NR (1983) Immunotherapeutic modification of Escherichia coli-induced experimental peritonitis and bacteremia by glucan. Surgery 93:448–454PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Williams DL, Sherwood ER, Browder IW, McNamee RB, Jones EL, Rakinic J, Di Luzio NR (1988) Effect of glucan on neutrophyl dynamics and immune function in Escherichia coli peritonitis. J Surg Res 44:54–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Williams DL, Sherwood ER, Browder WI, McNamee RB, Jones EL, Di Luzio NR (1988) Pre-clinical safety evaluation of soluble glucan. Int J Immunopharmacol 10:405–414CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Williams DL, Mueller A, Browder W (1996) Glucan-based macrophage stimulators: a review of their anti-infective potential. Clin Immunother. 5:392–399Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hakan Kayali
    • 1
  • M. Fatih Ozdag
    • 2
  • Serdar Kahraman
    • 1
  • Ahmet Aydin
    • 3
  • Engin Gonul
    • 1
  • Ahmet Sayal
    • 3
  • Zeki Odabasi
    • 2
  • Erdener Timurkaynak
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryGulhane Military Medical AcademyAnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyGulhane Military Medical AcademyAnkaraTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Pharmaceutical ToxicologyGulhane Military Medical AcademyAnkaraTurkey

Personalised recommendations