An insight into the iron acquisition and homeostasis in Aureobasidium melanogenum HN6.2 strain through genome mining and transcriptome analysis
Aureobasidium melanogenum HN6.2 is a unique yeast strain who can produce the siderophore of fusigen under iron starvation to guarantee its survival. However, a comprehensive understanding of mechanisms involved in iron acquisition and homeostasis for it is still vacant. In this study, genome sequencing and mining revealed that A. melanogenum HN6.2 strain was the first yeast species that exclusively possessed all the four known mechanisms for the iron acquisition: (i) the siderophore-mediated iron uptake; (ii) reductive iron assimilation; (iii) low-affinity ferrous uptake; and (iv) heme utilization, which suggested its stronger adaptability than Aspergillus fumigatus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This HN6.2 strain also employed the vacuolar iron storage for immobilizing the excessive iron to avoid its cellular toxicity. Specially, genome mining indicated that A. melanogenum HN6.2 strain could also synthesize ferricrocin siderophore. Further HPLC and Q-Tof-MS analysis confirmed that the siderophores synthesized by this strain consisted of cyclic fusigen, linear fusigen, ferricrocin, and hydroxyferricrocin and they played parallel roles as both intracellular and extracellular siderophores. Also, the heme utilization for this strain was experimentally verified by the knock-out of heme oxygenase gene. For iron homeostasis, the transcriptome analysis revealed that this strain mainly employed two central regulators of SreA/HapX to tune iron uptake and storage at the transcriptional level. It was also noted that mitogen-activated protein kinase C gene (MpkC) exhibited a transcriptional up-regulation under iron sufficiency, suggesting that it may serve as another factor involved in the repression of siderophore biosynthesis. This is the first genetic blueprint of iron acquisition and homeostasis for A. melanogenum.
KeywordsAureobasidium melanogenum Iron acquisition Homeostasis Genome mining Transcriptome analysis
This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31500029) and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2016M590657).
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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