Advertisement

Functional & Integrative Genomics

, Volume 11, Issue 4, pp 665–670 | Cite as

The glutamine synthetase (GS2) genes in relation to grain protein content of durum wheat

  • Agata GadaletaEmail author
  • Domenica Nigro
  • Angelica Giancaspro
  • Antonio Blanco
Short Communication

Abstract

Glutamine synthetase (GS2) is a key enzyme in plant nitrogen metabolism responsible of the first step of ammonium assimilation and transformation into glutamine (an essential compound in the amino acid-biosynthetic pathway). The goal of the present study was to isolate and characterize GS2 genes and to assess the linkage with grain protein content (GPC), an important quantitative trait controlled by multiple genes. Here, we report the isolation of the complete glutamine synthetase gene sequences and their localization on the two homeologous chromosome 2A and 2B in durum wheat cvs. Ciccio and Svevo characterized by a different grain protein content. GS2-A2 located on 2A chromosome is comprised of 13 exons separated by 12 introns, and the allele sequence in the two cultivars were different for an insertion of 5 bp located in the third exon in the cv. Ciccio. The GS2-B2 has the same intron/exon structure, but the two cultivars differ for the insertion of a 33-bp sequence located in the second intron of the cv. Svevo. Specific primers were designed in the polymorphic region and amplified in a recombinant inbred line mapping population. The study localized GS genes (GS2-A2, GS2-B2 GSe, GSr) on chromosomes 2A, 2B, 4A, and 4B, where four significant QTLs for GPC were also located.

Keywords

Glutamine synthetase (GS) Wheat QTL analysis Grain protein content 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by a grant from Ministero dell'Università e della Ricerca, Italy, project: ‘AGROGEN’.

Supplementary material

10142_2011_235_MOESM1_ESM.doc (356 kb)
Supp. Fig. 1 Genetic linkage map of chromosomes 2A and 2B in the RIL population Ciccio × Svevo (CxS) and in the F2 population Latino × Primadur (LxP) with highlighted GS2-A2 and GS2-B2 loci (a). Genetic linkage map of chromosomes 4A and 4B in the RIL population Ciccio × Svevo (CxS) and in the F2 population Latino × Primadur (LxP) with highlighted GSr-A4, GSr-B4, and Gse-A4 loci (b) (DOC 356 kb)
10142_2011_235_MOESM2_ESM.doc (54 kb)
Supp. Fig. 2 LOD score scan on chromosome 2B for QTLs associated with grain protein content. The scan for QTLs for each environment (dark blue dash-dotted lines Gaudiano 2006, pink dash-dotted lines Valenzano 2006, orange dash-dotted lines Foggia 2006, red dash-dotted lines Valenzano 2007, and blue dash-dotted lines Foggia 2007) are represented separately. The position and the name of molecular markers are shown on the chromosome along the horizontal axis. The LOD score scan was obtained by ICIM with highlights the markers used as cofactors (DOC 54 kb)
10142_2011_235_MOESM3_ESM.doc (84 kb)
Supp. Fig. 3 Alignment of the complete genomic sequences of GS2-A2 and GS2-B2 gene of cv. Svevo. (vertical lines identity, dots SNP) with underlined exons sequences (DOC 83 kb)
10142_2011_235_MOESM4_ESM.doc (40 kb)
Supp. Table 1 Chromosome localization of glutamine synthetase markers in two different durum wheat mapping populations “Svevo × Ciccio” (SxC) and “Latino × Primadur” (LxP) (dashes absent fragment) (DOC 40 kb)

References

  1. Bernard SM, Blom Møller AL, Dionisio G, Kichey T, Jahn TP, Dubois F, Baudo M, Lopes MS, Terce'-Laforgue T, Foyer CH, Parry MAJ, Forde BG, Araus JL, Hirel B, Schjoerring JK, Habash DZ (2008) Gene expression, cellular localization and function of glutamine synthetase isozymes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Plant Mol Biol 67:89–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bernard SM, Blom Møller AL, Dionisio G, Kichey T, Jahn TP, Dubois F, Baudo M, Lopes MS, Terce’-Laforgue T, Foyer CH, Parry MAJ, Forde BG, Araus JL, Hirel B, Bernard S, Habash DZ (2009) The importance of cytosolic glutamine synthetase in nitrogen assimilation and recycling. New Phytol 182:608–620PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Blanco A, Simeone R, Gadaleta A (2006) Detection of QTLs for grain protein content in durum wheat. Theor Appl Genet 112(7):1195–1204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blanco A, Mangini G, Giancaspro A, Giove S, Colasuonno P, Simeone R, Signorile A, De Vita P, Mastrangelo A M, Cattivelli L, Gadaleta A (2011) Relationships between grain protein content and grain yield components through QTL analyses in a RIL population derived from two elite durum wheat cultivars. Molecular Breeding (in press)Google Scholar
  5. Endo TR, Gill BS (1996) The deletion stocks of common wheat. J Hered 87:295–307Google Scholar
  6. Finnemann J, Schjoerring JK (2000) Post-translational regulation of cytosolic glutamine synthetase by reversible phosphorylation and 14-3-3 protein interaction. Plant J 24:171–181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fontaine J, Ravel C, Pageau K, Heumez E, Dubois F, Hirel B, Le Gouis J (2009) A quantitative genetic study for elucidating the contribution of glutamine synthetase, glutamate dehydrogenase and other nitrogen-related physiological traits to the agronomic performance of common wheat. Theor Appl Genet 119:645–662PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gadaleta A, Giancaspro A, Giove SL, Zacheo S, Mangini G, Simeone R, Signorile A, Blanco A (2009) Genetic and physical mapping of new EST-derived SSRs on the A and B genome chromosomes of wheat. Theor Appl Genet 118:1015–1025PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Galais A, Hirel B (2004) An approach to the genetics of nitrogen use efficiency in maize. J Exp Bot 55:295–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Habash DZ, Massiah AJ, Rong HL, Wallsgrove RM, Leigh RA (2001) The role of cytosolic glutamine synthetase in wheat. Ann Appl Biol 138:83–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Habash DZ, Bernard S, Schondelmaier J, Weyen J, Quarrie SA (2007) A genetic study of nitrogen use in hexaploid wheat in relation to N utilisation, development and yield. Theor Appl Genet 114:403–419PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hirel B, Lea PJ (2001) Ammonia assimilation. In: Lea PJ, Morot-Gaudry J-F (eds) Plant nitrogen. Springer, Berlin, pp 79–99Google Scholar
  13. Hirel B, Le Gouis J, NeyB GA (2007) The challenge of improving nitrogen use efficiency in crop plants: towards a more central role for genetic variability and quantitative genetics within integrated approaches. J Exp Bot 58:2369–2387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Joppa LR, Cantrell RG (1990) Chromosomal location of genes for grain protein content of wild tetraploid wheat. Crop Sci 30:1059–1064CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kamachi K, Yamaya T, Mae T, Ojima K (1991) A role for glutamine synthetase in the remobilization of leaf nitrogen during natural senescence in rice leaves. Plant Physiol 96:411–417PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kichey T, Le Gouis J, Sangwan B, Hirel B, Dubois F (2005) Changes in the cellular and subcellular localization of glutamine synthetase and glutamate dehydrogenase during flag leaf senescence in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Plant Cell Physiol 46:964–974PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kosambi DD (1944) The estimation of map distances from recombination values. Ann Eugen 12:172–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Li H, Ye G, Wang J (2007) A modified algorithm for the improvement of composite interval mapping. Genetics 175:361–374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Obara M, Sato T, Sasaki S, Kashiba K, Nagano A, Nakamura I, Ebitani T, Yano M, Yamaya T (2004) Identification and characterization of a QTL on chromosome 2 for cytosolic glutamine synthetase content and panicle number in rice. Theor Appl Genet 110:1–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Prasad M, Kumar N, Kulwal PL, Roder MS, Balyan HS, Dhaliwal HS, Roy JK, Gupta PK (2003) QTL analysis for grain protein content using SSR markers and validation studies using NILs in bread wheat. Theor Appl Genet 106:659–667PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Sears ER (1954) The aneuploids of common wheat. Univ MO Agric Exp Stn Res Bull 572:1–58Google Scholar
  22. Sears ER (1966) Nullisomic–tetrasomic combinations in hexaploid wheat. In: Riley R, Lewis KR (eds) Chromosome manipulations and plant genetics. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh, pp 20–45Google Scholar
  23. Sears ER, Sears LMS (1978) The telocentric chromosomes of common wheat. In: Ramanujam S (ed) Proceedings of the 5th international wheat genetics symposium. Indian Society of Genetics and Plant Breeding, New Delhi, pp 389–407Google Scholar
  24. Suprayogi Y, Pozniak CJ, Clarke FR, Clarke JM, Knox RE, Singh AK (2009) Identification and validation of quantitative trait loci for grain protein concentration in adapted Canadian durum wheat populations. Theor Appl Genet 119:437–448PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Tobin AK, Ridley SM, Stewart GR (1985) Changes in the activities of chloroplast and cytosolic isoenzymes of glutamine synthetase during normal leaf growth and plastid development in wheat. Planta 163:544–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Van Ooijen JW, Voorrips RE (2001) JoinMap_30. PRI, Wageningen, NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  27. Yamaya T, Obara M, Nakajima H, Sasaki S, Hayakawa T, Sato T (2002) Genetic manipulation and quantitative-trait loci mapping for nitrogen recycling in rice. J Exp Bot 53:917–925PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Agata Gadaleta
    • 1
    Email author
  • Domenica Nigro
    • 1
  • Angelica Giancaspro
    • 1
  • Antonio Blanco
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Agro-Forestry and Environmental Biology and ChemistryUniversity of BariBariItaly

Personalised recommendations