Functional & Integrative Genomics

, Volume 11, Issue 4, pp 551–563 | Cite as

Expression of the H+-ATPase AHA10 proton pump is associated with citric acid accumulation in lemon juice sac cells

  • Alessio Aprile
  • Claire Federici
  • Timothy J. Close
  • Luigi De Bellis
  • Luigi Cattivelli
  • Mikeal L. Roose
Original Paper

Abstract

The sour taste of lemons (Citrus limon (L.) Burm.) is determined by the amount of citric acid in vacuoles of juice sac cells. Faris is a “sweet” lemon variety since it accumulates low levels of citric acid. The University of California Riverside Citrus Variety Collection includes a Faris tree that produces sweet (Faris non-acid; FNA) and sour fruit (Faris acid; FA) on different branches; it is apparently a graft chimera with layer L1 derived from Millsweet limetta and layer L2 from a standard lemon. The transcription profiles of Faris sweet lemon were compared with Faris acid lemon and Frost Lisbon (L), which is a standard sour lemon genetically indistinguishable from Faris in prior work with SSR markers. Analysis of microarray data revealed that the transcriptomes of the two sour lemon genotypes were nearly identical. In contrast, the transcriptome of Faris sweet lemon was very different from those of both sour lemons. Among about 1,000 FNA-specific, presumably pH-related genes, the homolog of Arabidopsis H+-ATPase proton pump AHA10 was not expressed in FNA, but highly expressed in FA and L. Since Arabidopsis AHA10 is involved in biosynthesis and acidification of vacuoles, the lack of expression of the AHA10 citrus homolog represents a very conspicuous molecular feature of the FNA sweet phenotype. In addition, high expression of several 2-oxoglutarate degradation-related genes in FNA suggests activation of the GABA shunt and degradation of valine and tyrosine as components of the mechanism that reduces the level of citric acid in sweet lemon.

Keywords

Citrus Microarray Acidity/sourness Proton pump 

Supplementary material

10142_2011_226_MOESM1_ESM.tif (944 kb)
High resolution image (TIFF 943 kb)
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High resolution image (TIFF 1088 kb)
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Table S1Summary of all differentially expressed genes. In column A are listed the probe set IDs. “Comparisons” columns show the results of t test analysis. An empty cell means a non-significant result. For each probe set the relative gene ontology (GO) and Arabidopsis best match are shown (“Annotation” columns). Columns R to W report expression levels and columns X to AA the fold changes in sweet vs sour lemons (XLS 2208 kb)
10142_2011_226_MOESM4_ESM.xls (91 kb)
Table S2Functional classification of the cluster 1 genes using FunCat (Ruepp et al. 2004). Each category is sorted by increasing p value. Categories with p value lower than 0.05 (red) were considered over-represented in cluster 1 relative to observed Arabidopsis genome frequencies (XLS 91 kb)
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Table S3Functional classification of the cluster 2 genes using FunCat (Ruepp et al. 2004). Each category is sorted by increasing p value. Categories with p value lower than 0.05 (red) were considered over-represented in cluster 2 relative to observed Arabidopsis genome frequencies (XLS 90 kb)
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Table S4List of the probe sets that were not expressed in FNA samples and were expressed in FA and L samples. We report the probe set ID, the relative QT cluster, gene ontologies, Arabidopsis best match and expression level (XLS 38 kb)
10142_2011_226_MOESM7_ESM.xls (126 kb)
Table S5List of all the probe sets represented on Affymetrix Citrus GeneChip® related to glycolysis, acetyl-CoA synthesis, TCA cycle, citrate catabolism, glutamate synthesis, GABA shunt, tyrosine catabolism, branched-chain amino acid catabolism, and proton pumps. The last columns show the relative expression levels and fold changes in sweet vs sour lemons (XLS 125 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alessio Aprile
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Claire Federici
    • 2
  • Timothy J. Close
    • 2
  • Luigi De Bellis
    • 1
  • Luigi Cattivelli
    • 3
  • Mikeal L. Roose
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Biotechnology and Environmental ScienceUniversity of SalentoLecce, Prov.le Lecce-MonteroniItaly
  2. 2.Department of Botany and Plant Sciences and Institute for Integrative Genome BiologyUniversity of CaliforniaRiversideUSA
  3. 3.CRA-Genomic Research Centre, Fiorenzuola d’Arda (PC)FiorenzuolaItaly

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