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Functional & Integrative Genomics

, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 49–61 | Cite as

The wheat (T. aestivum) sucrose synthase 2 gene (TaSus2) active in endosperm development is associated with yield traits

  • Qiyan Jiang
  • Jian Hou
  • Chenyang Hao
  • Lanfen Wang
  • Hongmei Ge
  • Yushen Dong
  • Xueyong Zhang
Original Paper

Abstract

Sucrose synthase catalyzes the reaction sucrose + UDP → UDP-glucose + fructose, the first step in the conversion of sucrose to starch in endosperm. Previous studies identified two tissue-specific, yet functionally redundant, sucrose synthase (SUS) genes, Sus1 and Sus2. In the present study, the wheat Sus2 orthologous gene (TaSus2) series was isolated and mapped on chromosomes 2A, 2B, and 2D. Based on sequencing in 61 wheat accessions, three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in TaSus2-2B. These formed two haplotypes (Hap-H and Hap-L), but no diversity was found in either TaSus2-2A or TaSus2-2D. Based on the sequences of the two haplotypes, we developed a co-dominant marker, TaSus2-2B tgw , which amplified 423 or 381-bp fragments in different wheat accessions. TaSus2-2B tgw was located between markers Xbarc102.2 and Xbarc91 on chromosome 2BS in a RIL population from Xiaoyan 54 × Jing 411. Association analysis suggested that the two haplotypes were significantly associated with 1,000 grain weight (TGW) in 89 modern wheat varieties in the Chinese mini-core collection. Mean TGW difference between the two haplotypes over three cropping seasons was 4.26 g (varying from 3.71 to 4.94 g). Comparative genomics analysis detected major kernel weight QTLs not only in the chromosome region containing TaSus2-2B tgw, but also in the collinear regions of TaSus2 on rice chromosome 7 and maize chromosome 9. The preferred Hap-H haplotype for high TGW underwent very strong positive selection in Chinese wheat breeding, but not in Europe. The geographic distribution of Hap-H was perhaps determined by both latitude and the intensity of selection in wheat breeding.

Keywords

Triticum aestivum Sucrose synthase 2 Haplotype Thousand grain weight 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We gratefully appreciate the help of Prof. Robert A McIntosh, University of Sydney, with English editing and discussion. Thanks were also given to the group of Prof. Tong YP and Li ZS, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, CAS, for their help in mapping the haplotypes in their RIL population. Thanks were also given to Prof. Liu ZY and Yan JB, China Agricultural University; Mao L, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, for their help in comparative genetic analysis. This research was supported by the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology (2010CB125902), funding from Ministry of Agriculture (2008ZX08009) and Modern Agricultural Technical System.

Supplementary material

10142_2010_188_MOESM1_ESM.doc (32 kb)
Supplementary Fig. 1 Alignment of partial DNA sequences of Sus2 genes from wheat 2A, 2D, and the alleles Sus2-2B-L and Sus2-2B-H located on wheat chromosome 2B. The sequence of the genome-specific primers for 2B (Sus2-SNP-185 and Sus2-SNP-227) and complementary sequence of the allele-specific primers (Sus2-SNP-589L2 and Sus2-SNP-589H2) are shadowed. The genome-specific alleles at the 3′end contained in the genome-specific primers are underlined. The allele-specific primers contain SNP2-variants (boxed) at the 3′end and, in addition, had one mismatch with the nonspecific allele at the 2nd nucleotides in the 3′-end (G-C) (DOC 35.0 kb)
10142_2010_188_MOESM2_ESM.doc (122 kb)
Supplementary Fig. 2 The effect of mismatches within three bases of the 3′-end on the specificity of allele-specific PCR. In this test, we tried to generate allele-specific PCR primers to discriminate between Xiaoyan 54 and Jing 411 at SNP589. The incorporating mismatched bases are underlined in the sequences of the primers used in the test. The presence or absence of each PCR product was analyzed on 1.5% agarose gels. Sus2-SNP-185 and Sus2-SNP-227 were Forward primers. Sus2-SNP-589L1 (H1) primers contained SNP variants at the 3′-end; Sus2-SNP-563L2(H2), primers contained SNP variants at the 3′-end and, in addition, had one mismatch with the nonspecific allele at the 2nd nucleotide in the 3′-end; Sus2-SNP-563L3(H3) primers contained SNP variants at the 3′-end and, in addition, had two mismatches with the nonspecific allele at the 2nd and 3rd nucleotides in the 3′-end. M: 100 bp DNA ladder (Trans, BM301) (DOC 122 kb)
10142_2010_188_MOESM3_ESM.doc (76 kb)
Supplementary Fig. 3 Genetic structure of the Chinese wheat mini-core collection (DOC 76 kb)
10142_2010_188_MOESM4_ESM.doc (176 kb)
Supplementary Fig. 4 Genetic structure of Chinese modern varieties (DOC 176 kb)
10142_2010_188_MOESM5_ESM.doc (48 kb)
Supplementary Fig. 5 Wheat 2B consensus map and QTLs in the consensus map (DOC 48 kb)
10142_2010_188_MOESM6_ESM.doc (60 kb)
Supplementary Fig. 6 Orthologous of TaSus2 gene (LOC_Os07g42490) and co-localized QTLs in rice (DOC 60 kb)
10142_2010_188_MOESM7_ESM.doc (33 kb)
Supplementary Fig. 7 Orthologous sus1 gene and co-localized QTLs in maize (DOC 33 kb)
10142_2010_188_MOESM8_ESM.doc (158 kb)
Supplementary Fig. 8 Distribution of haplotype Hap-H and Hap-L at TaSus2-2B in different wheat ecological zones in China. (DOC 157 kb)
10142_2010_188_MOESM9_ESM.doc (264 kb)
Supplementary Fig. 9 PCR amplification of Chinese Spring (CS) and its group 7 nullisomic-tetrasomic lines with the PCR primer pairs shown on right and the size of the amplification product on the left. M: 100 bp DNA ladder (Trans, BM301) on (a and b); 1 kb DNA ladder (Fermentas, SM0311) on (c and d). Each genome-specific primer set amplified the products from CS and each CS nullisomic-tetrasomic line (DOC 263 kb)
10142_2010_188_MOESM10_ESM.xls (121 kb)
Supplementary Table 1 Mean measurements in three cropping seasons for agronomic traits and haplotypes (HT) at the TaSus2-2B locus of 245 wheat accessions in the mini-core collection.(Hap-H = H; Hap-L = L; heterozygote = HL; missing data = M) (XLS 121 kb)
10142_2010_188_MOESM11_ESM.xls (69 kb)
Supplementary Table 2 Haplotypes (HT) at the TaSus2-2B locus and origins, wheat region and year of release for 348 wheat accessions in the core collection (Hap-H = H; Hap-L = L; heterozygote = HL; missing data = M) (XLS 69 kb)
10142_2010_188_MOESM12_ESM.xls (82 kb)
Supplementary Table 3 Origins, heading date (HD), maturity date (MD) and haplotypes (HT) at the TaSus2-2B locus for 384 European wheat accessions (Hap-H = H; Hap-L = L; Heterozygote = HL; NM, cannot mature normally; NH, cannot heading normally) (XLS 82 kb)
10142_2010_188_MOESM13_ESM.xls (34 kb)
Supplementary Table 4 Haplotypes (HT) at the TaSus2-2B locus of 184 RILs (Xiaoyan 54 × Jing 411; Hap-H = H; Hap-L = L; heterozygote = HL; missing data = M) (XLS 34 kb)
10142_2010_188_MOESM14_ESM.doc (38 kb)
Supplementary Table 5 Geographical distribution across zones of haplotypes Hap-H and Hap-L at Tasus2-2B in Chinese modern varieties (DOC 38 kb)
10142_2010_188_MOESM15_ESM.doc (40 kb)
Supplementary Table 6 Geographical distribution (different provinces) of haplotypes Hap-H and Hap-L at Tasus2-2B in Chinese modern varieties (DOC 40 kb)
10142_2010_188_MOESM16_ESM.doc (48 kb)
Supplementary Table 7 Geographical distribution (different countries) of haplotypes Hap-H and Hap-L at Tasus2-2B in European wheat varieties (DOC 48 kb)
10142_2010_188_MOESM17_ESM.zip (17 kb)
Supplementary sequences (ZIP 17 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qiyan Jiang
    • 1
  • Jian Hou
    • 1
  • Chenyang Hao
    • 1
  • Lanfen Wang
    • 1
  • Hongmei Ge
    • 2
  • Yushen Dong
    • 1
  • Xueyong Zhang
    • 1
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Crop Germplasm Resources and Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture/Institute of Crop ScienceChinese Academy of Agricultural SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Huanghuaihai Crop Genetic Improvement and Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture/Crop Research InstituteQingdao Academy of Agricultural SciencesQingdaoChina

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