Functional & Integrative Genomics

, Volume 10, Issue 4, pp 561–575 | Cite as

Sustained upregulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase in bovine mammary tissue with contrasting changes in milk fat synthesis and lipogenic gene networks caused by lipid supplements

  • Guido Invernizzi
  • Betsy J. Thering
  • Mark A. McGuire
  • Giovanni Savoini
  • Juan J. Loor
Original Paper


Long-term mammary expression patterns of lipogenic gene networks due to dietary lipid remain largely unknown. Mammary tissue was biopsied for transcript profiling of 29 genes at 0, 7, and 21 days of feeding cows saturated lipid (EB100) or a blend of fish/soybean oil (FSO) to depress milk fat. Milk fat yield decreased gradually with FSO and coincided with lower molar yield of fatty acids synthesized de novo, stearic acid, and oleic acid. The PPARγ targets LPIN1 and SREBF1 along with ACSS2, ACACA, FASN, and LPL increased by day 7 of feeding EB100, but differences between diets disappeared by day 21. Expression of SCAP increased markedly over time with FSO and differed from EB100 by approximately sevenfold on day 21. Expression of THRSP decreased by day 7 with both diets and returned to basal levels by day 21. SCD expression increased linearly through 7 days and remained elevated with both diets, a likely mechanism to ensure the proper level of endogenous oleic acid via desaturation of dietary stearate (EB100) or via more SCD protein to account for the reduction in stearate supply from the rumen (FSO). Despite this response, endogenous oleate was insufficient to restore normal milk fat synthesis. Only 2 of 29 genes differed in expression between diets on day 21, suggesting that transcriptional control mechanisms regulating fat synthesis were established as early as 7 days post-feeding. Gene expression reflected vastly different physiological responses by mammary tissue to adjust its metabolism to the influx of saturated fatty acids, trans10-18:1, and/or to the lack of stearic acid.


Mammary tissue Milk fat Lactation 



Supported by the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, USDA, under Hatch projects ILLU-538-307 and ILLU-538-391 (both to JJL). We gratefully acknowledge the input and help of Dr. Massimo Bionaz (University of Illinois, Urbana) during the development of the manuscript. The fish oil used in this study was donated by Omega Protein and the soybean oil by Archer Daniels Midland (Decatur, IL, USA). EnergyBooster 100 was a gift from Milk Specialties Inc. (Dundee, IL, USA). We are also grateful for the help from the staff of the University of Illinois Dairy Research and Teaching Unit for animal care.

Integrity of research and reporting

The authors declare that the experiment complies with the current laws of the USA. The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Supplementary material

10142_2010_179_MOESM1_ESM.doc (2.6 mb)
Online Resource 1 (Microsoft Word) The file contains additional materials and methods and additional results and discussion. Measurements and sample collection; biopsies and RNA extraction; quantitative PCR, primer design, and primer testing; quantitative PCR performance; diet nutrient composition; fatty acid composition of lipid supplements; gene expression results across all treatments at the end of the study; longitudinal production data; longitudinal milk fatty acid profiles. (DOC 2626 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guido Invernizzi
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Betsy J. Thering
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mark A. McGuire
    • 4
  • Giovanni Savoini
    • 3
  • Juan J. Loor
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Mammalian NutriPhysioGenomics, Department of Animal SciencesUniversity of IllinoisUrbanaUSA
  2. 2.Division of Nutritional SciencesUniversity of IllinoisUrbanaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Veterinary Science and Technology for Food Safety, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of MilanMilanItaly
  4. 4.Department of Animal and Veterinary ScienceUniversity of IdahoMoscowUSA

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