Enhanced mitochondrial complex gene function and reduced liver size may mediate improved feed efficiency of beef cattle during compensatory growth
- 883 Downloads
Growing ruminants under extended dietary restriction exhibit compensatory growth upon ad libitum feeding, which is associated with increased feed efficiency, lower basal energy requirements, and changes in circulating concentrations of metabolic hormones. To identify mechanisms contributing to these physiological changes, 8-month-old steers were fed either ad libitum (control; n = 6) or 60–70% of intake of control animals (feed-restricted; n = 6) for a period of 12 weeks. All steers were fed ad libitum for the remaining 8 weeks of experimentation (realimentation). Liver was biopsied at days −14, +1, and +14 relative to realimentation for gene expression analysis by microarray hybridization. During early realimentation, feed-restricted steers exhibited greater rates of gain and feed efficiency than controls and an increase in expression of genes functioning in cellular metabolism, cholesterol biosynthesis, oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis, and gluconeogenesis. Gene expression changes during feed restriction were similar to those reported in mice, indicating similar effects of caloric restriction across species. Based on expression of genes involved in cell division and growth and upregulation of genes encoding mitochondrial complex proteins in early realimentation, it was concluded that reduced hepatic size and increased mitochondrial function may contribute to improved feed efficiency observed during compensatory growth.
KeywordsCattle Feed efficiency Liver Microarray
The authors thank Marsha Campbell and Dennis Hucht for their technical assistance and Roxane Macdonald, Ben Bache, Duane Taylor, George Bowman, Abraham Alignay, and the BARC Research Support Services staff for their assistance in conducting the animal portion of the study. Mention of trade names or commercial products is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the US Department of Agriculture. Current affiliation of S.M. Barao is the Maryland Cattlemen's Association, 7566 Main St., Sykesville, MD 21784, USA.
The authors have no potential conflicts of interest to disclose.
- Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development (2006) Residual feed intake (net feed efficiency) in beef cattle. AGRI-FACTS, July 2006, Agdex 420/11-1Google Scholar
- Baldwin RL VI, McLeod KR, Klotz JL, Heitmann RN (2004) Rumen development, intestinal growth and hepatic metabolism in the pre- and postweaning ruminant. J Dairy Sci 87:E55–E65Google Scholar
- Brinks JS, Katsigianis TS (1982) The genetic history and present structure of the Wye Angus University of Maryland herd. Maryland Agr. Exp. Sta. Misc. Pub. 976, University of Maryland, College Park, MDGoogle Scholar
- Guo L, Lobenhofer EK, Wang C, Shippy R, Harris SC, Zhang L, Mei N, Chen T, Herman D, Goodsaid FM, Hurban P, Phillips KL, Xu J, Deng X, Sun YA, Tong W, Dragan YP, Shi L (2006) Rat toxicogenomic study reveals analytical consistency across microarray platforms. Nat Biotechnol 24:1162–1169CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Iqbal M, Pumford NR, Tang ZX, Lassiter K, Ojano-Dirain C, Wing T, Cooper M, Bottje W (2005) Compromised liver mitochondrial function and complex activity in low feed efficient broilers are associated with higher oxidative stress and differential protein expression. Poult Sci 84:933–941PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lee YC, Kaufmann M, Kitazume-Kawaguchi S, Kono M, Takashima S, Kurosawa N, Liu H, Pircher H, Tsuji S (1999) Molecular cloning and functional expression of two members of mouse NeuAcalpha2, 3Galbeta1, 3GalNAc GalNAcalpha2, 6-sialyltransferase family, ST6GalNAc III and IV. J Biol Chem 274:11958–11967CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Livak KJ, Schmittgen TD (2001) Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2(-delta delta C (T)). Method Methods 25:402–408Google Scholar
- McDonald JM, Nielsen MK (2008) Mitochondrial efficiency in lines of mice divergently selected for heat loss. J Dairy Sci 91(E Suppl 1):600 Abstract 767Google Scholar
- Moore SS, Mujibi FD, Sherman EL (2009) Molecular basis for residual feed intake in beef cattle. J Anim Sci 87:E41–E47Google Scholar
- Morey JS, Ryan JC, Van Dolah FM (2006) Microarray validation: factors influencing correlation between oligonucleutide microarrays and real-time PCR. Biol Proced Online 8:175–193Google Scholar
- Renaville R, Van Eenaeme C, Breier BH, Vleurick L, Bertozzi C, Gengler N, Hornick JL, Parmentier I, Istasse L, Haezebroeck V, Massart S, Portetelle D (2000) Feed restriction in young bulls alters the onset of puberty in relationship with plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding proteins. Domest Anim Endocrinol 18:165–176CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ritchie HD (1992) A review of applied beef cattle nutrition. Extension Bulletin E-2331. Cooperative Extension Service, Michigan State UniversityGoogle Scholar
- SAS Institute Inc. (1996) SAS/STAT® software: changes and enhancements through release 6.11. SAS Institute, CaryGoogle Scholar
- Shi L, Jones WD, Jensen RV, Harris SC, Perkins RG, Goodsaid FM, Guo L, Croner LJ, Boysen C, Fang H, Qian F, Amur S, Bao W, Barbacioru CC, Bertholet V, Cao XM, Chu TM, Collins PJ, Fan XH, Frueh FW, Fuscoe JC, Guo X, Han J, Herman D, Hong H, Kawasaki ES, Li QZ, Luo Y, Ma Y, Mei N, Peterson RL, Puri RK, Shippy R, Su Z, Sun YA, Sun H, Thorn B, Turpaz Y, Wang C, Wang SJ, Warrington JA, Willey JC, Wu J, Xie Q, Zhang L, Zhang L, Zhong S, Wolfinger RD, Tong W (2008) The balance of reproducibility, sensitivity, and specificity of lists of differentially expressed genes in microarray studies. BMC Bioinformatics 9(Suppl 9):S10CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Smyth GK (2004) Linear models and empirical Bayes methods for assessing differential expression in microarray experiments. Statistical Applications in Genetics and Molecular Biology 3, No. 1, Article 3Google Scholar
- Su HP, Nakada-Tsukui K, Tosello-Trampont AC, Li Y, Bu G, Henson PM, Ravichandran KS (2002) Interaction of CED-6/GULP, an adapter protein involved in engulfment of apoptotic cells with CED-1 and CD91/low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP). J Biol Chem 277:11772–11779CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar