Arabidopsis thaliana J-class heat shock proteins: cellular stress sensors

Review

Abstract

Plants are sessile organisms that have evolved a variety of mechanisms to maintain their cellular homeostasis under stressful environmental conditions. Survival of plants under abiotic stress conditions requires specialized group of heat shock protein machinery, belonging to Hsp70:J-protein family. These heat shock proteins are most ubiquitous types of chaperone machineries involved in diverse cellular processes including protein folding, translocation across cell membranes, and protein degradation. They play a crucial role in maintaining the protein homeostasis by reestablishing functional native conformations under environmental stress conditions, thus providing protection to the cell. J-proteins are co-chaperones of Hsp70 machine, which play a critical role by stimulating Hsp70s ATPase activity, thereby stabilizing its interaction with client proteins. Using genome-wide analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana, here we have outlined identification and systematic classification of J-protein co-chaperones which are key regulators of Hsp70s function. In comparison with Saccharomyces cerevisiae model system, a comprehensive domain structural organization, cellular localization, and functional diversity of A. thaliana J-proteins have also been summarized.

Keywords

Arabidopsis thaliana Heat shock protein Hsp70 J-protein ATPase activity 

Abbreviations

Hsps

Heat shock proteins

Hsp70

70 kDa heat shock protein

Hsp40

40 kDa heat shock protein

DnaJ

J-protein, Hsp40

HPD motif

Histidine, proline, aspartate motif

JLPs

J-like proteins

G/F region

Glycine/phenylalanine region

Caj1

Calmodulin-binding protein

JAC1

J-protein required for chloroplast accumulation response

AUL1

Auxilin-like 1 protein

mtHsp70

Mitochondrial Hsp70

Pam18

Presequence translocase-associated protein import motor 18

Pam16

Presequence translocase-associated protein import motor 16

GFA2

Gametophytic FActor 2

ARG1

Altered response to gravity 1

ARL1

Altered response to gravity-like gene 1

ARL2

Altered response to gravity-like gene 2

Kam2

Katamari 2

GRV2

Gravitropism defective 2

RME-8

Receptor-mediated endocytosis-8

PSVs

Protein storage vacuoles

Supplementary material

10142_2009_132_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (33 kb)
Supplementary Material Table S1Data collection of type III and type IV A. thaliana J-proteins (PDF 32 kb).
10142_2009_132_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (93 kb)
Supplementary Material Fig. S1Structural classification of A. thaliana type III and type IV J-proteins. In total, 92 type III J-proteins and four type IV J-like proteins have been identified in A. thaliana genome. The highly diverged A. thaliana type III J-proteins contain additional zinc-finger domains along with J-domain such as C2H2, A2L, DPH, PhnA, PHD, ZF-HYPF, PRIM ZN, and ZN-CCHC, which are also included in the classification, designated by ZN2, ZN3, ZN4, ZN5, ZN6, ZN7, ZN8, and ZN9, respectively. They have been identified by using Pfam database. The C2H2 domain consists of the consensus sequence (F/Y)-X-C-X2-5-C-X3-(F/Y)-X5-Ψ-X2-H-X3–4-H which is identified as a DNA-binding domain. The A2L zinc-finger domain has the consensus sequence CX2CX13CX2C, which specifically binds to zinc. Its function is unknown. The DPH (CSL) zinc-finger domain contains two CX(n)C motifs (in most cases n = 2) as a consensus sequence which is involved in diphthamide biosynthesis. PHD fingers comprise C4HC3 signature which tend to be found in nuclear proteins that have a role in regulating chromatin. Zinc knuckle-CCHC has a consensus sequence CX2CX4HX4C which is involved in RNA binding. Transmembrane (TM), coiled coil (Cc), and tetratricopeptide (TPR) region were analyzed using different databases which are mentioned in Fig. 3. The domain region and total protein amino acid residue are also mentioned for each protein sequence. Type IV J-proteins contain 1 JLP2 and 3 JLP3/Magmas sequence where each sequence is represented by 3A, 3B, and 3C (PDF 93 kb).

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biochemistry DepartmentIndian Institute of ScienceBangaloreIndia

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