Functional & Integrative Genomics

, Volume 5, Issue 4, pp 254–259

Gene networks in hexaploid wheat: interacting quantitative trait loci for grain protein content

  • Pawan Kulwal
  • Neeraj Kumar
  • Ajay Kumar
  • Raj Kumar Gupta
  • Harindra Singh Balyan
  • Pushpendra Kumar Gupta
Short Communication


In hexaploid wheat, single-locus and two-locus quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses for grain protein content (GPC) were conducted using two different mapping populations (PI and PII). Main effect QTLs (M-QTLs), epistatic QTLs (E-QTLs) and QTL × environment interactions (QE, QQE) were detected using two-locus analyses in both the populations. Only a few QTLs were common in both the analyses, and the QTLs and the interactions detected in the two populations differed, suggesting the superiority of two-locus analysis and the need for using several mapping populations for QTL analysis. A sizable proportion of genetic variation for GPC was due to interactions (28.59% and 54.03%), rather than to M-QTL effects (7.24% and 7.22%), which are the only genetic effects often detected in the majority of QTL studies. Even E-QTLs made a marginal contribution to genetic variation (2.68% and 6.04%), thus suggesting that the major part of genetic variation is due to changes in gene networks rather than the presence or absence of specific genes. This is in sharp contrast to the genetic dissection of pre-harvest sprouting tolerance conducted by us earlier, where interaction effects were not substantial, suggesting that the nature of genetic variation also depends on the nature of the trait.


Grain protein content Hexaploid wheat QTL analysis Epistasis 

Supplementary material

s10142_2005_136_ESM_supp.pdf (57 kb)
(PDF 58 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pawan Kulwal
    • 1
  • Neeraj Kumar
    • 1
  • Ajay Kumar
    • 1
  • Raj Kumar Gupta
    • 2
  • Harindra Singh Balyan
    • 1
  • Pushpendra Kumar Gupta
    • 1
  1. 1.Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Genetics and Plant BreedingCh. Charan Singh UniversityMeerutIndia
  2. 2.Directorate of Wheat ResearchKarnalIndia

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