Expression analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) during salinity stress

  • Harkamal Walia
  • Clyde Wilson
  • Abdul Wahid
  • Pascal Condamine
  • Xinping Cui
  • Timothy J. Close
Original Paper


Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a salt-tolerant crop species with considerable economic importance in salinity-affected arid and semiarid regions of the world. In this work, barley cultivar Morex was used for transcriptional profiling during salinity stress using a microarray containing ∼22,750 probe sets. The experiment was designed to target the early responses of genes to a salinity stress at seedling stage. We found a comparable number of probe sets up-regulated and down-regulated in response to salinity. The differentially expressed genes were broadly characterized using gene ontology and through expression-based hierarchical clustering to identify interesting features in the data. A prominent feature of the response to salinity was the induction of genes involved in jasmonic acid biosynthesis and genes known to respond to jasmonic acid treatment. A large number of abiotic stress (heat, drought, and low temperature) related genes were also found to be responsive to salinity stress. Our results also indicate osmoprotection to be an early response of barley under salinity stress. Additionally, we compared the results of our studies with two other reports characterizing gene expression of barley under salinity stress and found very few genes in common.


Barley Salinity stress Microarray Jasmonic acid 



The authors wish to thank Steve Wanamaker for providing annotations, Don Layfield (GEB Salinity Laboratory, USA) for ion analysis, and Jutta C. Burger for technical assistance.

This work was supported by USDA-IFAFS 01-52100-11346, “An integrated physical and expression map of barley for Triticeae improvement”; NSF DBI-0321756, “Coupling Expressed Sequences and Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Resources to Access the Barley Genome”; and USDA-NRI 02-35300-12548, “HarvEST: A Portable EST Database Viewer.”

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harkamal Walia
    • 1
  • Clyde Wilson
    • 2
  • Abdul Wahid
    • 3
  • Pascal Condamine
    • 1
  • Xinping Cui
    • 4
  • Timothy J. Close
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Botany and Plant SciencesUniversity of CaliforniaRiversideUSA
  2. 2.USDA-ARSGeorge E. Brown Jr. Salinity LaboratoryRiversideUSA
  3. 3.Department of BotanyUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan
  4. 4.Department of StatisticsUniversity of CaliforniaRiversideUSA

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